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Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Induced by Enriched Environment Enhances Angiogenesis and Motor Function in Chronic Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

Authors
 Jung Hwa Seo  ;  Ji Hea Yu  ;  Hwal Suh  ;  Myung-Sun Kim  ;  Sung-Rae Cho 
Citation
 PLOS ONE, Vol.8(9) : e74405, 2013 
Journal Title
 PLOS ONE 
Issue Date
2013
MeSH
Actins/metabolism ; Analysis of Variance ; Animals ; Blotting, Western ; DNA Primers/genetics ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/metabolism* ; Housing, Animal* ; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism* ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mice ; Muscle Strength/physiology ; Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology* ; Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism ; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Rotarod Performance Test
Keywords
Actins/metabolism ; Analysis of Variance ; Animals ; Blotting, Western ; DNA Primers/genetics ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/metabolism* ; Housing, Animal* ; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism* ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mice ; Muscle Strength/physiology ; Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology* ; Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism ; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Rotarod Performance Test
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched environment (EE) on promoting angiogenesis and neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in seven day-old CD-1® mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min). At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC) for two months. Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. In order to identify angiogenic growth factors regulated by EE, an array-based multiplex ELISA assay was used to measure the expression in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. Among the growth factors, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was confirmed using western blotting. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry. As a result, mice exposed to EE showed significant improvements in rotarod and ladder walking performances compared to SC controls. The level of FGF-2 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex of EE mice at 8 weeks after treatment in multiplex ELISA and western blot. On the other hand, FGF-2 in the striatum significantly increased at 2 weeks after exposure to EE earlier than in the frontal cortex. Expression of activin A was similarly upregulated as FGF-2 expression pattern. Particularly, all animals treated with FGF-2 neutralizing antibody abolished the beneficial effect of EE on motor performance relative to mice not given anti-FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry showed that densities of α-SMA+ and PECAM-1+ cells in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were significantly increased following EE, suggesting the histological findings exhibit a similar pattern to the upregulation of FGF-2 in the brain. In conclusion, EE enhances endogenous angiogenesis and neurobehavioral functions mediated by upregulation of FGF-2 in chronic hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
Files in This Item:
T201303280.pdf Download
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0074405
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Medical Engineering (의학공학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine (재활의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Seo, Jung Hwa(서정화)
Suh, Hwal(서활)
Yu, Ji Hea(유지혜)
Cho, Sung-Rae(조성래) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1429-2684
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/87945
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