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Thyroid Nodules with Benign Findings at Cytologic Examination: Results of Long-term Follow-up with US

 Soo-Yeon Kim  ;  Kyung Hwa Han  ;  Hee Jung Moon  ;  Jin Young Kwak  ;  Woong Youn Chung  ;  Eun-Kyung Kim 
 RADIOLOGY, Vol.271(1) : 272-281, 2014 
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Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Biopsy, Fine-Needle* ; Diagnosis, Differential ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Retrospective Studies ; Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging ; Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology* ; Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging ; Thyroid Nodule/pathology* ; Ultrasonography, Interventional
PURPOSE: To investigate the natural history of thyroid nodules found to be benign at initial fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the percentage of nodules that increased in volume by more than 50% as being an indicator of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study was approved by the institutional review board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. The study included 854 FNAB-confirmed benign thyroid nodules. Suspicious ultrasonographic (US) features included marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margin, microcalcification, and taller-than-wide shape. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the association with nodule growth greater than 50% in volume. RESULTS: For the 854 nodules, the initial mean diameter was 19.92 mm (range, 3.10-60.00 mm), and the initial mean volume was 3.19 cm(3) (range, 0.01-4.64 cm(3)). The majority (682 [79.9%] of 854) of thyroid nodules with benign cytologic results at initial FNAB did not grow more than 50% in volume during 4 years of mean follow-up (range, 7-101 months). More than 4 years of follow-up time versus less than 2 years, younger age, a cystic component of less than 25%, and nodule size 1 cm or larger versus less than 1 cm were independently associated with growth. There was only one malignant nodule (0.6%) among 172 thyroid nodules with a volume increase of 50% or greater during the entire follow-up time. Ten malignant nodules (overall malignancy rate: 1.2%) were detected among the 854 total nodules, and eight of these 10 nodules showed suspicious features at US. CONCLUSION: Repeat FNAB for nodules showing more than 50% growth in volume is unlikely to result in a diagnosis of malignancy. A positive FNAB result for malignancy is significantly more likely in the presence of suspicious US features.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Radiology (영상의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Surgery (외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kwak, Jin Young(곽진영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6212-1495
Kim, Eun-Kyung(김은경) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3368-5013
Moon, Hee Jung(문희정) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5643-5885
Chung, Woong Youn(정웅윤)
Han, Kyung Hwa(한경화)
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