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Long-Term Adverse Effects of Cigarette Smoking on the Incidence Risk of Metabolic Syndrome With a Dose-Response Relationship: Longitudinal Findings of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study Over 12 Years

 Ae Hee Kim  ;  In-Ho Seo  ;  Hye Sun Lee  ;  Yong-Jae Lee 
 ENDOCRINE PRACTICE, Vol.28(6) : 603-609, 2022-06 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cigarette Smoking* / adverse effects ; Cigarette Smoking* / epidemiology ; Humans ; Incidence ; Male ; Metabolic Syndrome* / epidemiology ; Metabolic Syndrome* / etiology ; Prospective Studies ; Republic of Korea / epidemiology ; Risk Factors
cigarette smoking ; metabolic syndrome ; prospective cohort study
Objective: To investigate the association between the intensity and cumulative dose of cigarette smoking and incidence risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a longitudinal prospective study over 12 years of follow-up.

Methods: This study included 3151 men aged 40 to 69 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. MetS was defined as proposed by the Joint Interim Statement of the Circulation 2009 report. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incidence risk of MetS were calculated from 2 separate perspectives: (1) number of cigarettes smoked per day (intensity) and (2) total number of cigarettes smoked over a person's lifetime (cumulative dose) using multiple logistic regression analyses.

Results: In comparison with never smokers, the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.97 (0.78-1.21) for former smokers and 1.50 (1.07-2.01) with 0 to 9 cigarettes per day, 1.66 (1.34-2.06) with 10 to 19 cigarettes per day, and 1.75 (1.34-2.29) with ≥20 cigarettes per day for current smokers after adjusting for confounding variables. Similar positive dose-response relationships were also observed when the cumulative dose of cigarette smoking was categorized into former and current smokers, with subcategories of <20 and >20 pack-years (PYs). The HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.77-1.23) for <20 PYs and 0.99 (0.77-1.28) for ≥20 PYs for former smokers and 1.63 (1.32-2.02) for <20 PYs and 1.67 (1.30-2.14) for ≥20 PYs for current smokers after adjusting for the same covariables.

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking intensity and cumulative dose were both found to be positively associated with the incidence risk of MetS in men.
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Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Family Medicine (가정의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Seo, Inho(서인호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8280-7745
Lee, Yong Jae(이용제) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6697-476X
Lee, Hye Sun(이혜선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6328-6948
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