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Characteristics and Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinomas Categorized as LR-M: Comparison with Those Categorized as LR-4 or 5

 Jaeseung Shin  ;  Sunyoung Lee  ;  Seung-Seob Kim  ;  Yong Eun Chung  ;  Jin-Young Choi  ;  Mi-Suk Park  ;  Myeong-Jin Kim 
 JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Vol.54(5) : 1446-1454, 2021-11 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / diagnostic imaging ; Contrast Media ; Female ; Humans ; Liver Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging ; Retrospective Studies
diagnosis ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; magnetic resonance imaging ; prognosis
Background: According to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), the LI-RADS category M (LR-M), which are probably or definitely malignant but are not specific for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), does not exclude HCCs. A gap in knowledge remains, including their characteristics and recurrence of HCCs categorized as LR-M.

Purpose: To compare the characteristics of HCCs categorized as LR-M with HCCs categorized as LR-4 or LR-5 (LR-4/5) using the LI-RADS version 2018 and evaluate the relationship of these categories with the risk of early recurrence after curative resections of single HCCs.

Study type: Retrospective.

Subjects: Two hundred and eighty-one patients (mean age, 57 years; 191 men and 90 women) who underwent curative resections for single HCCs and preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI between 2015 and 2017.

Field strength/sequence: 3T Dual gradient-echo T1 WI with in- and opposed-phase, turbo spin-echo T2 WI, diffusion-weighted echo-planar images, and three-dimensional gradient-echo T1 WI before and after administration of contrast agent.

Assessment: MRI features according to the LI-RADS version 2018 were evaluated and LI-RADS category were assigned for each observation. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological features were compared based on LI-RADS categorization. Early recurrence rates (<2 years) and associated factors were also evaluated.

Statistical tests: Fisher's exact test, two-sample t test after satisfying assumption of normality through Shapiro-Wilk test, Fleiss κ coefficient, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test.

Results: Forty-one HCCs (14.6%) were categorized as LR-M and 240 HCCs (85.4%) were categorized as LR-4/5. LR-M HCCs showed poorer differentiation than LR-4/5 HCCs. In the multivariate analysis, the LR-M category was an independent predictor for early recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.904; 95% confidence interval, 1.024-3.542; P < 0.05). Early recurrence rates were significantly higher in patients with LR-M HCCs than in patients with LR-4/5 HCCs (32.0% vs. 18.4%, respectively, P < 0 05).

Data conclusion: Compared to LR-4/5 HCCs, LR-M HCCs were associated with poorer tumor differentiation and higher early recurrence rates after curative resections of single HCCs.

Level of evidence: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Radiology (영상의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Myeong Jin(김명진) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7949-5402
Kim, Seung-seob(김승섭) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6071-306X
Park, Mi-Suk(박미숙) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5817-2444
Shin, Jaeseung(신재승) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6755-4732
Lee, Sunyoung(이선영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6893-3136
Chung, Yong Eun(정용은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0811-9578
Choi, Jin Young(최진영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9025-6274
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