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High-Mobility Group Box 1 Is Associated with the Inflammatory Pathogenesis of Graves' Orbitopathy

 So Young Han  ;  Soo Hyun Choi  ;  Jeon-Soo Shin  ;  Eun Jig Lee  ;  Sueng-Han Han  ;  Jin Sook Yoon 
 THYROID, Vol.29(6) : 868-878, 2019 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Graves' orbitopathy ; Toll-like receptor 2 ;  high mobility group box 1 ; inflammation ; receptor for advanced glycation end products
Background: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. This study investigated the influence and mechanisms of HMGB1 in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods: HMGB1 and its receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end products [RAGE], Toll-like receptor [TLR] 2, and TLR4) mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in GO and non-GO orbital tissues. The mRNA expressions of HMGB1 and its receptors were evaluated in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from six GO patients and five healthy control subjects under interleukin (IL)-1β or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation using RT-PCR. HMGB1 secretions under IL-1β or TNF-α stimulation were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects of an anti-HMGB1 antibody, RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZM1), and anti-TLR2 antibody on the expressions of IL-1β or TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells were evaluated using ELISA and Western blot analysis, respectively. The plasma levels of HMGB1 were compared among patients with active GO (n = 51), inactive GO (n = 48), Graves' disease without GO (n = 30), and healthy control subjects (n = 46) by ELISA. Results: The genes encoding HMGB1 and its receptors, as well as HMGB1 protein expression, were increased in GO orbital tissues compared to non-GO tissues. IL-1β and TNF-α stimulation increased the mRNA levels of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR2 and the secretion of HMGB1 protein further in GO cells. Anti-HMGB1 antibody, FPS-ZM1, and anti-TLR2 antibody reduced IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. The plasma levels of HMGB1 were highly increased in patients with active GO, and were significantly correlated with the clinical activity score (r = 0.566, p = 0.002) and levels of thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association of HMGB1 and its receptors in the inflammatory mechanisms of GO. HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR2 blockers reduced the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, providing a rationale for blocking the HMGB1 pathway to treat patients with GO. HMGB1 proteins were secreted further in the plasma of patients with active GO, suggesting that HMGB1 can be used as a biomarker of GO activity.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Microbiology (미생물학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Ophthalmology (안과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Shin, Jeon Soo(신전수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8294-3234
Yoon, Jin Sook(윤진숙) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8751-9467
Lee, Eun Jig(이은직) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9876-8370
Han, Seung Han(한승한) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8972-4790
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