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Low-grade inflammation, metabolic syndrome and the risk of chronic kidney disease: the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

 Hee-Taik Kang ; Jong-Koo Kim ; Yong-Jae Lee ; John A. Linton ; Hye-Ree Lee ; Jae-Yong Shim 
 Journal of Korean Medical Science, Vol.27(6) : 630~635, 2012 
Journal Title
 Journal of Korean Medical Science 
Issue Date
Either chronic inflammation or metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with renal impairment. This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or more according to the presence of MetS in adult Koreans. In total, 5,291 subjects (≥ 20 yr-old) participating in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination were included. CKD stage 3 or more was defined as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), as calculated using the formula from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for CKD stage 3 or more in the highest WBC quartile (≥ 7,200 cells/µL) was 1.70 (1.17-2.39) after adjusting for MetS and other covariates, compared with the lowest WBC quartile (< 5,100 cells/µL). In subjects with MetS, the prevalence risk for CKD stage 3 or more in the highest WBC quartile was 2.25 (1.28-3.95) even after fully adjusting for confounding variables. In contrast, this positive association between WBC quartile and CKD stage 3 or more disappeared in subjects without MetS. Low-grade inflammation is significantly associated with CKD stage 3 or more in subjects with MetS but not in those without MetS.
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