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Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicities of ioxitalamate and indigocarmine in human nucleus pulposus cells

 Kyung-Hyun Kim  ;  Young-Sung Kim  ;  Sung-Uk Kuh  ;  Hyo-Suk Park  ;  Jeong-Yoon Park  ;  Dong-Kyu Chin  ;  Keun-Su Kim  ;  Yong-Eun Cho 
 SPINE JOURNAL, Vol.13(5) : 564-571, 2013 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Intervertebral disc ; Contrast medium ; Ioxitalamate ; Indigocarmine ; Cytotoxicity
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Ioxitalamate (Telebrix 300) is an ionic iodinated contrast medium commonly used for discography or percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD), though it has side effects such as anaphylactic shock and renal toxicity. Indigocarmine is an organic compound dye with a distinctive blue color that is commonly used during PELD to stain the acidic, degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP). Although ioxitalamate and indigocarmine are widely used in spinal surgery, there have been no reports on their effects on NP cells. We studied the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to NP cells. PURPOSE: To determine the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to NP cells in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro, controlled study of the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to human NP cells. METHODS: Nucleus pulposus cells were obtained via discectomy from lumbar disc patients and isolated. Nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in three-dimensional (3D) alginate beads with 0.001, 0.1, 10, and 100 mg/mL ioxitalamate, 0.00001, 0.001, 0.1, and 10 mg/mL indigocarmine, or a mixture of both for 1, 2, or 3 days. The living cells were analyzed with trypan blue staining. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting analysis using Annexin V and propidium iodide and 3D alginate bead immunostaining was performed to identify live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. RESULTS: Ioxitalamate, indigocarmine, and their combination induced statistically significant NP cell injury that was both time- and dose dependent (p<.05). Also, at the same concentration, ioxitalamate was more cytotoxic than was indigocarmine or the combination (p<.05). All three treatments also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity according to flow cytometry and immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: Ioxitalamate and indigocarmine are toxic to human NP cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We assume that ioxitalamate and indigocarmine may have similar effects in patients undergoing discography and PELD. Thus, we suggest that ioxitalamate and indigocarmine should be used carefully at low concentrations.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurosurgery (신경외과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kuh, Sung Uk(구성욱) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2566-3209
Kim, Kyung Hyun(김경현)
Kim, Keun Su(김근수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3384-5638
Kim, Young Sung(김영성)
Park, Jeong Yoon(박정윤) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3728-7784
Park, Hyo Suk(박효숙)
Cho, Yong Eun(조용은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9815-2720
Chin, Dong Kyu(진동규) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9835-9294
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