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Patent Foramen Ovale and Risk of Recurrence in Stroke of Determined Etiology

 Minyoul Baik  ;  Chi Young Shim  ;  Seo-Yeon Gwak  ;  Young Dae Kim  ;  Hyo Suk Nam  ;  Hye Sun Lee  ;  Chung Mo Nam  ;  Ji Hoe Heo 
 ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Vol.92(4) : 596-606, 2022-10 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cerebral Infarction / complications ; Foramen Ovale, Patent* / complications ; Foramen Ovale, Patent* / diagnostic imaging ; Foramen Ovale, Patent* / epidemiology ; Humans ; Infarction / complications ; Recurrence ; Risk Factors ; Stroke* / diagnostic imaging ; Stroke* / epidemiology ; Stroke* / etiology
Objective: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is often found in stroke patients with determined etiologies. PFO may be the actual cause of stroke in some of them. We determined whether the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke differs with PFO status in stroke patients with determined etiologies.

Methods: This study included consecutive patients with stroke of determined etiology who underwent transesophageal echocardiography. We compared the rates of recurrent cerebral infarction in patients with versus without PFO, and according to PFO-Associated Stroke Causal Likelihood (PASCAL) classification.

Results: Of 2,314 included patients, 827 (35.7%) had PFO. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, cerebral infarction recurred in 202 (8.7%). In multivariate modified Cox regression analyses, recurrence of infarction did not significantly differ between patients with PFO and those without PFO (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-1.17, p = 0.339). Interaction analysis showed a significant effect of PFO in patients aged <65 years (adjusted p for interaction = 0.090). PFO was independently associated with a decreased risk of recurrent infarction in patients younger than 65 years (HR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.85, adjusted p = 0.016). Patients with probable PFO-associated stroke on the PASCAL classification had a significantly lower risk of recurrent infarction than those without PFO (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.10-0.97, p = 0.044).

Interpretation: Considering the generally low risk of recurrence in PFO-associated stroke, PFO may be the actual cause of stroke in some patients with determined etiologies, especially younger patients or those with PFO features of probable PFO-associated stroke. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:596-606.
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Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurology (신경과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Gwak, Seo-Yeon(곽서연)
Kim, Young Dae(김영대) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5750-2616
Nam, Chung Mo(남정모) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0985-0928
Nam, Hyo Suk(남효석) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4415-3995
Baik, Minyoul(백민렬)
Shim, Chi Young(심지영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6136-0136
Lee, Hye Sun(이혜선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6328-6948
Heo, Ji Hoe(허지회) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9898-3321
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