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Calcium Supplements and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

 Seung-Kwon Myung  ;  Hong-Bae Kim  ;  Yong-Jae Lee  ;  Yoon-Jung Choi  ;  Seung-Won Oh 
 NUTRIENTS, Vol.13(2) : 368, 2021-01 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Calcium / administration & dosage* ; Calcium, Dietary* ; Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control* ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Coronary Disease ; Databases, Factual ; Dietary Supplements* ; Double-Blind Method ; Eating ; Female ; Humans ; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
calcium supplements ; cardiovascular disease ; meta-analysis ; randomized controlled trials
Background: Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs) have reported controversial findings regarding the associations between calcium supplements on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between them.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the bibliographies of relevant articles for double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs in November, 2020. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of cardiovascular disease were calculated using a random effects model. The main outcomes were CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular disease.

Results: A total of 13 double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs (n = 28,935 participants in an intervention group and 14,243 in a control group)) were included in the final analysis. Calcium supplements significantly increased the risk of CVD (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25], I2 = 0.0%, n = 14) and CHD (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28], I2 = 0.0%, n = 9) in double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs, specifically in healthy postmenopausal women. In the subgroup meta-analysis, dietary calcium intake of 700-1000 mg per day or supplementary calcium intake of 1000 mg per day significantly increased the risk of CVD and CHD.

Conclusions: The current meta-analysis found that calcium supplements increased a risk of CVD by about 15% in healthy postmenopausal women.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Family Medicine (가정의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Lee, Yong Jae(이용제) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6697-476X
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