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Comparison of proton density fat fraction, simultaneous R2*, and apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of focal vertebral bone marrow lesions

 K-S Kwack  ;  H-D Lee  ;  S W Jeon  ;  H Y Lee  ;  S Park 
 CLINICAL RADIOLOGY, Vol.75(2) : 123-130, 2020-02 
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Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Bone Marrow / diagnostic imaging* ; Bone Marrow Diseases / diagnostic imaging ; Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Male ; Middle Aged ; ROC Curve ; Retrospective Studies ; Spinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging ; Spinal Neoplasms / secondary ; Spine / diagnostic imaging* ; Young Adult
AIM: To investigate the diagnostic performance of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and simultaneous R2* for focal vertebral bone marrow lesion (VBML) assessment, compared with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety-two spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed in 126 patients with focal VBMLs from March 2016 to November 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. The lesions were divided into metastases and benign VBMLs. The protocol consisted of routine morphological MRI sequences, followed by complex-based chemical shift imaging (CSE)-MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI with a 1.5 T system. PDFF, R2*, and the ADC values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was carried out to assess the diagnostic performance for differentiating metastases from focal benign VBMLs. RESULTS: PDFF, R2*, and mean ADC values in metastases were significantly lower than those in benign VBMLs (p<0.05). The PDFF (area under the curve [AUC]=0.968; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.932-0.988) showed a significantly larger AUC compared with R2* (AUC=0.670; 95% CI=0.599-0.736) and ADC (AUC=0.801; 95% CI=0.738-0.855). The optimal cut-off value of the PDFF for predicting metastases was 9%; this threshold corresponded to a sensitivity of 96.67%, specificity of 90.28%, and accuracy of 94.27%. CONCLUSION: PDFF is significantly more accurate than ADC and R2* for differentiating focal benign VMBLs from metastases. (C) 2019 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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