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Dietary iron to total energy intake ratio and type 2 diabetes incidence in a longitudinal 12-year analysis of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Cohort Study

 Dong-Hyuk Jung  ;  Kyeng Won Hong  ;  Byoungjin Park  ;  Yong-Jae Lee 
 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol.60(8) : 4453-4461, 2021-11 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cohort Studies ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics ; Energy Intake ; Female ; Humans ; Incidence ; Iron, Dietary* ; Male ; Republic of Korea ; Risk Factors
Gene ; Iron and total energy intake ; KoGES ; Type 2 diabetes
Purpose: Recent study found iron consumption has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Even though, high iron intake is correlated with total caloric intake, most studies have evaluated the individual effect of iron and total caloric intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iron intake, in conjunction with total energy intake, on developing T2DM. We also investigated the interactions between dietary iron and energy ratios (IERs) and iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of T2DM.

Methods: The study was carried out in Ansan and Ansung, Korea, between March 2001 and December 2014. A total of 6413 participants (3073 men and 3340 women), aged 40-69 years, were enrolled in this study. The mean follow-up period was 8.4 years. The study population was divided into quartiles based on IERs with cut-off points at 4.54, 5.41, and 6.29. The odds ratios (ORs) for new-onset T2DM were calculated across each quartile of IERs and a random forest model was constructed using the default settings to predict new-onset T2DM. To confirm the interaction among IERs, SNPs, and the incidence of T2DM, we measured the predictive power of new-onset T2DM using IER and six SNPs in genes related to iron metabolism [rs855791 (TPMRSS6), rs38116479 (TF), rs1799852 (TF), rs2280673, rs1799945 (HFT), rs180562 (HFE)].

Results: The prevalence of T2DM was 762 (11.8%). IERs showed a positive association with T2DM. The ORs were 1.30 (95% CI 1.02-1.67), 1.20 (95% CI 0.94-1.56), and 1.43 (95% CI 1.11-1.86) across the IER quartiles after adjusting for non-dietary and dietary metabolic risk factors. When the IER was 1.89-fold higher than the reference group, the risk of developing T2DM increased by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.11-1.86).

Conclusion: A higher IER was positively associated with developing T2DM independent of dietary or non-dietary risk factors. We also found the possible interactions between the identified SNPs and iron intake in relations to T2DM.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Family Medicine (가정의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Park, Byoungjin(박병진) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1733-5301
Lee, Yong Jae(이용제) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6697-476X
Jung, Dong Hyuk(정동혁) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3411-0676
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