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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

Authors
 Daniel J Klionsky et al, 
Citation
 AUTOPHAGY, Vol.17(1) : 1-382, 2021-02 
Journal Title
AUTOPHAGY
ISSN
 1554-8627 
Issue Date
2021-02
Keywords
Autophagosome ; LC3 ; cancer ; flux ; lysosome ; macroautophagy ; neurodegeneration ; phagophore ; stress ; vacuole
Abstract
In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
Full Text
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280#
DOI
10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > BioMedical Science Institute (의생명과학부) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Bae, Soo Han(배수한) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8007-2906
Lee, Myung Shik(이명식) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3292-1720
Lee, Yong Ho(이용호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6219-4942
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/185969
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