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Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Acute Kidney Injury After Aortic Surgery: A Single-Centre, Placebo-Controlled, Randomised Controlled Trial

 Sarah Soh  ;  Jae-Kwang Shim  ;  Jong-Wook Song  ;  Jae-Chan Bae  ;  Young-Lan Kwak 
 BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, Vol.124(4) : 386-394, 2020-04 
Journal Title
Issue Date
acute kidney injury ; aorta ; cardiovascular disease ; dexmedetomidine ; postoperative complications
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious complication after aortic surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, may reduce AKI because of its sympatholytic and anti-inflammatory effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine administration on AKI after aortic surgery requiring CPB in a placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. Methods: A total of 108 patients were randomly assigned to an infusion of dexmedetomidine or saline at a rate of 0.4 μg kg-1 h-1 for 24 h starting after anaesthetic induction. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI, as defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The secondary outcomes included delirium and major morbidity. Safety outcomes were drug-related adverse events (bradycardia, hypotension). Results: AKI occurred in 7/54 (13%) subjects randomised to dexmedetomidine, compared with 17/54 (31%) subjects randomised to saline infusion (odds ratio=0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.86; P=0.026). Secondary outcomes, including stroke, mortality, and delirium, were similar between subjects randomised to dexmedetomidine (16/54 [30%] or saline control (22 [41%]; odds ratio=0.61 [95% CI, 0.28-1.36]). The incidence of bradycardia and hypotension was similar between groups (14/54 (26%) vs. 17/54 (32%) (odds ratio:0.76 (95%CI:0.33-1.76) and 29/54 (54%) vs. 36/54 (67%) (odds ratio:0.58 (95%CI:0.27-1.26), respectively). The length of hospital stay was shorter in the dexmedetomidine group (12 [10-17] days) vs saline control (15 [11-21] days; P=0.039). Conclusions: Pre-emptive dexmedetomidine administration for 24 h starting after induction of anaesthesia reduced the incidence of AKI after aortic surgery requiring CPB, without any untoward side-effects related to its sedative or sympatholytic effects. Clinical trial registration: NCT02607163 (www.ClinicalTrials.gov).
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kwak, Young Lan(곽영란) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2984-9927
Soh, Sa Rah(소사라) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5022-4617
Song, Jong Wook(송종욱) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7518-2070
Shim, Jae Kwang(심재광) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9093-9692
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