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Ultrasonographic and Three-Dimensional Analyses at the Glabella and Radix of the Nose for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Procedures into the Procerus Muscle

 Younghoon Cho  ;  Hyung-Jin Lee  ;  Kang-Woo Lee  ;  Kyu-Lim Lee  ;  Jae Seung Kang  ;  Hee-Jin Kim 
 TOXINS, Vol.11(10) : E560, 2019 
Journal Title
Issue Date
3D scanning imaging ; M. procerus ; botulinum neurotoxin injection ; facial rejuvenation procedures ; glabella ; glabellar transverse line ; radix of the nose ; sellion ; ultrasonographic imaging
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and identify the location of the intercanthal vein using ultrasonographic (US) imaging and the three-dimensional scanning method, which is needed to know to avoid side effects during BoNT injections. The morphology of the procerus was classified into two types based on the US images obtained at the glabella. The procerus was located deeper below the skin surface at the glabella than the sellion (3.8 ± 0.7 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.6 mm). The width of the procerus in US images increased from the sellion (10.9 ± 0.2 mm) to the glabella (14.5 ± 4.6 mm), whereas its thickness decreased (from 1.6 ± 0.6 mm to 1.1 ± 0.5 mm). The intercanthal vein was located 5.1 ± 4.0 mm superior to the sellion and 3.0 ± 0.6 mm below the skin's surface. The present findings provide anatomical knowledge as well as the reference location information for use when injecting BoNT into the procerus.
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2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Oral Biology (구강생물학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Hee Jin(김희진) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1139-6261
Lee, Kang Woo(이강우)
Lee, Kyu-Lim(이규림) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9898-2035
Lee, Hyung Jin(이형진) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3082-935X
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