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유전정보 차별금지의 법적문제 -외국의 규율 동향과 그 시사점을 중심으로 -

Other Titles
 Legal and Regulatory Issues in Genetic Information Discrimination - Focusing on Overseas Regulatory Trends and Domestic Implications - 
Authors
 양지현  ;  김소윤 
Citation
 Korean Society of Law and Medicine (의료법학), Vol.18(1) : 237-264, 2017 
Journal Title
 Korean Society of Law and Medicine (의료법학) 
ISSN
 의료법학 
Issue Date
2017
Keywords
ELSI ; Genetic Information ; Genetic Discrimination ; Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act ; Precision Medicine
Abstract
With the onset of the Human Genome Project, social concerns about ‘genetic information discrimination’ have been raised, but the problem has not yet been highlighted in Korea. However, non-medical institutions’ genetic testing which is related to disease prevention could be partially allowed under the revised “Bioethics and Safety Act” from June 30, 2016. In the case of one domestic insurance company, DTC genetic testing was provided for the new customer of cancer insurance as a complimentary service, which made the social changes related to the recognition of the genetic testing. At a time when precision medicine is becoming a new standard for medical care, discipline on genetic information discrimination has become a problem that can not be delayed anymore. Article 46 and 67 of the Bioethics Act stipulate the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of genetic information and penalties for its violation. However, these broad principles alone can not solve the problems in specific genetic information utilization areas such as insurance and employment. The United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany have different regulations that prohibit genetic information based discrimination. In the United States, Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act takes a form that adds to the existing law about the prohibition of genetic information discrimination. In addition, the range of genetic information includes the results of genetic tests of individuals and their families, including “family history”. Canada has recently enacted legislation in 2017, expanding coverage to general transactions of goods or services in addition to insurance and employment. The United Kingdom deals only with ‘predictive genetic testing results of individuals’. In the case of insurance, the UK government and Association of British Insurers (ABI) agree to abide by a policy framework (‘Concordat’) for cooperation that provides that insurers’ use of genetic information is transparent, fair and subject to regular reviews; and remain committed to the voluntary Moratorium on insurers’ use of predictive genetic test results until 1 November 2019, and a review of the Concordat in 2016. In the case of employment, The ICO’s ‘Employment Practices Code (2011)’ is used as a guideline. In Germany, Human Genetic Examination Act(Gesetz über genetische Untersuchungen bei Menschen) stipulates a principle ban on the demand for genetic testing and the submission of results in employment and insurance. The evaluation of the effectiveness of regulatory framework, as well as the form and scope of the discipline is different from country to country. In light of this, it would be desirable for the issue of genetic information discrimination in Korea to be addressed based on the review of related regulations, the participation of experts, and the cooperation of stakeholders.
Full Text
http://www.earticle.net/article.aspx?sn=315277
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Medical Law and Bioethics (의료법윤리학과) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, So Yoon(김소윤) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7015-357X
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/161188
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