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Validity and reliability of a structured-light 3D scanner and an ultrasound imaging system for measurements of facial skin thickness

 Kang‐Woo Lee  ;  Sang‐Hwan Kim  ;  Young‐Chun Gil  ;  Kyung‐Seok Hu  ;  Hee‐Jin Kim 
 Clinical Anatomy, Vol.30(7) : 878-886, 2017 
Journal Title
 Clinical Anatomy 
Issue Date
Aged Aged, 80 and over Anatomic Landmarks Cadaver Face/anatomy & histology ; Face/diagnostic imaging ; Female ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods* ; Light ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Organ Size ; Reproducibility of Results ; Skin/anatomy & histology* ; Skin/diagnostic imaging* ; Ultrasonography/instrumentation*
3D scanning system ; direct measurement ; facial skin thickness ; reliability ; ultrasound imaging system
Three-dimensional (3 D)-scanning-based morphological studies of the face are commonly included in various clinical procedures. This study evaluated validity and reliability of a 3 D scanning system by comparing the ultrasound (US) imaging system versus the direct measurement of facial skin. The facial skin thickness at 19 landmarks was measured using the three different methods in 10 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Skin thickness was first measured using the ultrasound device, then 3 D scanning of the facial skin surface was performed. After the skin on the left half of face was gently dissected, deviating slightly right of the midline, to separate it from the subcutaneous layer, and the harvested facial skin's thickness was measured directly using neck calipers. The dissected specimen was then scanned again, then the scanned images of undissected and dissected faces were superimposed using Morpheus Plastic Solution (version 3.0) software. Finally, the facial skin thickness was calculated from the superimposed images. The ICC value for the correlations between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement showed excellent reliability (0.849, 95% confidence interval = 0.799-0.887). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement (bias = 0.49 ± 0.49 mm, mean±SD). These results demonstrate that the 3 D scanning system precisely reflects structural changes before and after skin dissection. Therefore, an in-depth morphological study using this 3 D scanning system could provide depth data about the main anatomical structures of face, thereby providing crucial anatomical knowledge for utilization in various clinical applications.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Others (기타)
1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Oral Biology (구강생물학교실)
Yonsei Authors
길영천(Gil, Young Chun)
김희진(Kim, Hee Jin) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1139-6261
이강우(Lee, Kang Woo)
허경석(Hu, Kyung Seok) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9048-3805
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