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Exposure assessment and health risk of poly-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in the indoor environment of elementary school students in Korea

 Young-Wook Lim  ;  Ho-Hyun Kim  ;  Chung-Soo Lee  ;  Dong-Chun Shin  ;  Yoon-Seok Chang  ;  Ji-Yeon Yang 
 SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol.470~471 : 1376-1389, 2014 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Air Pollutants/analysis* ; Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis* ; Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data ; Child ; Dust/analysis ; Environmental Monitoring* ; Flame Retardants/analysis* ; Floors and Floorcoverings ; Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers/analysis* ; Humans ; Inhalation Exposure/analysis ; Inhalation Exposure/statistics & numerical data* ; Republic of Korea ; Risk Assessment ; Schools ; Students
Elementary school student ; Multimedia and multipathway exposure ; PBDEs ; Risk assessment
This study assessed the health risks of elementary school students' exposure to PBDEs via different possible pathways in children's facilities. After PBDE contamination was measured, exposure was demonstrated to occur through multiple routes, including inhalation of indoor dust, dermal contact with products' surfaces and children's hands, and incidental dust ingestion. Samples were collected from various children's facilities (30 elementary schools, 31 private academies, 12 living rooms and bedrooms in houses, 5 public libraries of children's literature, and 3 large hypermalls) in summer (Jul–Sep, 2008) and winter (Jan–Feb, 2009). The hazard index (HI) was estimated for non-carcinogens and PBDEs, such as TeBDE, PeBDE, HxBDE, OcBDE, and DeBDE. PBDEs were detected in all floor dust samples, 99% of indoor air samples, 94% of product-wipe samples, and 86% of hand wipe samples. The average levels of PBDEs ranged from 0.19 to 1.06 ng/m3 in indoor air, 4623 to 6650 ng/g-dust in floor dust, 0.012 to 0.103 ng/cm2 on product surfaces, and 7.89 to 25.38 ng/hand on the surface of children's hands. The HI for school children via multimedia and multipathway exposure to PBDEs did not exceed 1.0. The exposure to PBDEs at home (approximately 80%) was dominant. The contribution rates of PBDE risk were 77% and 15% via dust ingestion at home and at elementary school, respectively; thus, intake of floor dust was determined to be the primary route of exposure.
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Appears in Collections:
5. Research Institutes (연구소) > Institute for Environmental Research (환경공해연구소) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Ho Hyen(김호현)
Shin, Dong Chun(신동천) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4252-2280
Yang, Ji Yeon(양지연)
Lim, Young Wook(임영욱) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8845-2850
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