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Efficacy and Tolerability of the Ketogenic Diet According to Lipid:Nonlipid Ratios—Comparison of 3:1 with 4:1 Diet

 Joo Hee Seo  ;  Young Mock Lee  ;  Heung Dong Kim  ;  Hoon Chul Kang  ;  Joon Soo Lee 
 EPILEPSIA, Vol.48(4) : 801-805, 2007 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Adolescent ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage ; Dietary Fats/administration & dosage* ; Dietary Fats/metabolism ; Dietary Fats/therapeutic use ; Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage ; Disease-Free Survival ; Epilepsy/diet therapy* ; Epilepsy/metabolism* ; Female ; Food, Formulated/adverse effects ; Humans ; Infant ; Ketone Bodies/biosynthesis* ; Ketosis/chemically induced ; Ketosis/metabolism ; Lipids/administration & dosage* ; Lipids/therapeutic use ; Longitudinal Studies ; Male ; Spasms, Infantile/diet therapy ; Spasms, Infantile/metabolism ; Treatment Outcome
The ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered a highly potent antiepileptic treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic efficacy and diet tolerability of two different diets with lipid:nonlipid ratios of 3:1 and 4:1.
Seventy-six patients with refractory childhood epilepsy were randomly placed into two groups and were started on KD diets with nonlipid:lipid ratios of either 3:1 or 4:1. Antiepileptic efficacy and diet tolerability were evaluated 3 months after initiating the diet. Patients showing seizure-free outcome with the 4:1 diet were changed to the 3:1 diet, and those without a seizure-free outcome on the 3:1 diet were changed to the 4:1 diet, for three more months, after which time their progress was monitored.
(1) Antiepileptic efficacy was higher for the 4:1 than the 3:1 diet (p < 0.05). Twenty-two (55.0%) of 40 patients on the 4:1 diet and 11 (30.5%) of 36 patients on the 3:1 diet became seizure free. Seizure reduction of over 90% was observed in 2 (5.0%) patients on the 4:1 diet, and 2 (5.6%) on the 3:1 diet. (2) Dietary tolerability was better for the 3:1 than the 4:1 diet. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 5 (13.9%) patients with the 3:1 diet and 14 (35.0%) patients with the 4:1 diet (p < 0.05). (3) For seizure-free patients who started on the 4:1 diet, antiepileptic efficacy was maintained after changing to the 3:1 diet, while 10 (83.3%) of 12 patients who were not seizure free with the 3:1 diet showed increased seizure reduction after changing to the 4:1 diet. (4) Complications from the KD and laboratory data were not significantly different between the two groups.
The 4:1 KD showed greater antiepileptic efficacy than the 3:1 diet with higher seizure-free outcome. In most cases, seizure free outcome was maintained even after changing the ratio to 3:1. Dietary tolerability was better in the 3:1 diet than the 4:1 with less frequent gastrointestinal symptoms.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kang, Hoon Chul(강훈철) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3659-8847
Kim, Heung Dong(김흥동) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8031-7336
Seo, Joo Hee(서주희)
Lee, Young Mock(이영목) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5838-249X
Lee, Joon Soo(이준수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9036-9343
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