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Health Risk Assessment of Lead Ingestion Exposure by Particle Sizes in Crumb Rubber on Artificial Turf Considering Bioavailability

 Sunduk Kim  ;  Ji-Yeon Yang  ;  Ho-Hyun Kim  ;  In-Young Yeo  ;  Dong-Chun Shin  ;  Young-Wook Lim 
 Environmental Health and Toxicology, Vol.27 : 20120005, 2012 
Journal Title
 Environmental Health and Toxicology 
Issue Date
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of ingestion exposure of lead by particle sizes of crumb rubber in artificial turf filling material with consideration of bioavailability. Methods : This study estimated the ingestion exposure by particle sizes (more than 250 um or less than 250 um) focusing on recyclable ethylene propylene diene monomer crumb rubber being used as artificial turf filling. Analysis on crumb rubber was conducted using body ingestion exposure estimate method in which total content test method, acid extraction method and digestion extraction method are reflected. Bioavailability which is a calibrating factor was reflected in ingestion exposure estimate method and applied in exposure assessment and risk assessment. Two methods using acid extraction and digestion extraction concentration were compared and evaluated. Results : As a result of the ingestion exposure of crumb rubber material, the average lead exposure amount to the digestion extraction result among crumb rubber was calculated to be 1.56×10-4 mg/kg-day for low grade elementary school students and 4.87×10-5 mg/kg-day for middle and high school students in 250 um or less particle size, and that to the acid extraction result was higher than the digestion extraction result. Results of digestion extraction and acid extraction showed that the hazard quotient was estimated by about over 2 times more in particle size of lower than 250 um than in higher than 250 um. There was a case of an elementary school student in which the hazard quotient exceeded 0.1. Conclusions : Results of this study confirm that the exposure of lead ingestion and risk level increases as the particle size of crumb rubber gets smaller.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (예방의학교실)
1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원)
1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 5. Research Institutes (연구소) > Institute for Environmental Research (환경공해연구소)
Yonsei Authors
김호현(Kim, Ho Hyen)
신동천(Shin, Dong Chun) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4252-2280
양지연(Yang, Ji Yeon)
임영욱(Lim, Young Wook) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8845-2850
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