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Factors Associated with a Low-sodium Diet: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

 Won Joon Lee  ;  Hyeon Chang Kim  ;  Sun Min Oh  ;  Dong Phil Choi  ;  Jaelim Cho  ;  Il Suh 
 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND HEALTH, Vol.35 : 2013005, 2013 
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Food services ; Low-sodium diet ; Population surveillance ; Republic of Korea ; Sodium intake
OBJECTIVES: The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ≤2,000 mg/day based on 24-hour recalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets. RESULTS: Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ≥1 time/day, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Hyeon Chang(김현창) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7867-1240
Suh, Il(서일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9689-7849
Oh, Sun Min(오선민)
Lee, Won Joon(이원준)
Cho, Jae Lim(조재림)
Choi, Dong Phil(최동필)
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