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Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Northern Ghana: A Three-Year Retrospective Analysis

 Kennedy Mensah Osei  ;  Heekang Choi  ;  Zeyeh David Eklu  ;  Alikamatu Salifu  ;  Owusu Boateng Esther  ;  Vandarith Nov  ;  Nguyen Le Phuong  ;  Kubura Khadija  ;  Bobzah Bernard  ;  Dongeun Yong 
 Annals of Clinical Microbiology, Vol.25(2) : 45-51, 2022-03 
Journal Title
Annals of Clinical Microbiology
Issue Date
Gram-negative bacteria ; Multidrug resistance ; Tamale Teaching Hospital ; Ghana
Background: A variety of clinically important pathogens have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), which threatens global public health. This study aimed to determine the incidence, patterns, and trends of MDR of gram-negative bacterial isolates in clinical specimens in the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed gram-negative bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results of patients who visited the Tamale Teaching Hospital laboratory between 2017 and 2019.

Results: A total of 2,779 gram-negative bacterial isolates and their phenotypic AST results were analyzed. From these, 1,297 gram-negative bacteria (46.7%) were isolated from urine samples, while the rest were isolated from sputum (20.9%), wound (14.3%), and swabs (11.7%) samples, etc. Escherichia coli (23.8%) was the most common gram-negative pathogen found predominantly in the urine samples (33.2%). All gram-negative bacteria isolated between 2017 and 2019 showed high MDR. Klebsiella pneumoniae gradually increased its MDR from 84.0% in 2017, 89.5% in 2018, to 95.1% in 2019. On the other hand, the MDR rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were approximately 65.8%, varying from 59.5% in 2017 to 78.7% in 2019. Among tested antimicrobials, amikacin was the most effective. Resistance to amikacin in Enterobacter spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae in vitro were 16.2%, 11.8%, and 17.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: The study has shown that the high levels of MDR in gram-negative bacteria isolated may be associated with the infections recorded at the Tamale Teaching Hospital. The major gram-negative pathogens isolated have resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Aminoglycosides can offer high antibiotic activity to overcome gram-negative bacterial resistance. Further studies will be needed to decide policy direction on infection prevention and control, and antimicrobial stewardship programs
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Laboratory Medicine (진단검사의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Yong, Dong Eun(용동은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1225-8477
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