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Maternal risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with low birth weight in a secondary referral hospital in Ghana

 Agani Afaya  ;  Richard Adongo Afaya  ;  Thomas Bavo Azongo  ;  Vida Nyagre Yakong  ;  Kennedy Diema Konlan  ;  Ethel Agbinku  ;  Eric Agyabeng-Fandoh  ;  Renna Akokre  ;  Jebuni Fuseini Karim  ;  Solomon Mohammed Salia  ;  Robert Alhassan Kaba  ;  Martin Amogre Ayanore 
 HELIYON, Vol.7(5), 2021-05 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Ghana ; Low birth weight ; Maternal risk factors ; Neonatal risk factors ; Prevalence
Introduction: Over the past decade, the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in sub-Saharan Africa has not seen any decline and this is a matter of grave concern for healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of LBW and related maternal risk factors (during pregnancy or delivery) as well as neonatal outcomes.

Methods: An institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed to select 1,017 mothers who delivered in the study hospital from January to December 2017 with singleton newborn babies without congenital diseases. Data were analysed using STATA version 14.1 (StataCorp. 2015. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). Chi-square test of independence was used to test the association between the dependent variable (LBW) and risk factors of LBW. Bivariate and multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with LBW.

Results: The incidence of LBW was 23.7%. The findings show that being married has a protective effect on LBW [AOR = 0.60 (95%CI: 0.40-0.90), p = 0.013] compared to single mothers. Neonates born between gestational age of 37-42 weeks had 85% lower odds of LBW [AOR = 0.15, (95%CI: 0.10-0.24), p < 0.001)]. Neonates with LBW had a higher risk of low Apgar score in the first minute compared to neonates with normal birth weight [AOR = 0.52 (95%CI: 0.37-0.73), p < 0.001]. Female neonates had 64% higher odds of LBW compared to their male counterparts [AOR = 1.64 (95%CI: 1.19-2.24), p = 0.002].

Conclusion: This study revealed a high incidence of LBW. Women's marital status (single mothers), gestational age (<37 weeks), neonatal sex (female), are independent risk factors associated with LBW, while a higher risk of an Apgar score of less than 7 in the first minute was an independent outcome of low birth weight births. The current study findings contribute to the growing literature on the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on LBW in resource-constrained settings. These findings could guide healthcare providers, hospital administrators, stakeholders, and policymakers to develop and implement appropriate clinical and public health strategies aimed at reducing LBW.
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3. College of Nursing (간호대학) > Dept. of Nursing (간호학과) > 1. Journal Papers
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