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The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis

Authors
 Ramy Abou Ghayda  ;  Keum Hwa Lee  ;  Young Joo Han  ;  Seohyun Ryu  ;  Sung Hwi Hong  ;  Sojung Yoon  ;  Gwang Hum Jeong  ;  Jae Won Yang  ;  Hyo Jeong Lee  ;  Jinhee Lee  ;  Jun Young Lee  ;  Maria Effenberger  ;  Michael Eisenhut  ;  Andreas Kronbichler  ;  Marco Solmi  ;  Han Li  ;  Louis Jacob  ;  Ai Koyanagi  ;  Joaquim Radua  ;  Myung Bae Park  ;  Sevda Aghayeva  ;  Mohamed L C B Ahmed  ;  Abdulwahed Al Serouri  ;  Humaid O Al-Shamsi  ;  Mehrdad Amir-Behghadami  ;  Oidov Baatarkhuu  ;  Hyam Bashour  ;  Anastasiia Bondarenko  ;  Adrian Camacho-Ortiz  ;  Franz Castro  ;  Horace Cox  ;  Hayk Davtyan  ;  Kirk Douglas  ;  Elena Dragioti  ;  Shahul Ebrahim  ;  Martina Ferioli  ;  Harapan Harapan  ;  Saad I Mallah  ;  Aamer Ikram  ;  Shigeru Inoue  ;  Slobodan Jankovic  ;  Umesh Jayarajah  ;  Milos Jesenak  ;  Pramath Kakodkar  ;  Yohannes Kebede  ;  Meron Kifle  ;  David Koh  ;  Visnja K Males  ;  Katarzyna Kotfis  ;  Sulaiman Lakoh  ;  Lowell Ling  ;  Jorge Llibre-Guerra  ;  Masaki Machida  ;  Richard Makurumidze  ;  Mohammed A Mamun  ;  Izet Masic  ;  Hoang Van Minh  ;  Sergey Moiseev  ;  Thomas Nadasdy  ;  Chen Nahshon  ;  Silvio A Ñamendys-Silva  ;  Blaise N Yongsi  ;  Henning B Nielsen  ;  Zita A Nodjikouambaye  ;  Ohnmar Ohnmar  ;  Atte Oksanen  ;  Oluwatomi Owopetu  ;  Konstantinos Parperis  ;  Gonzalo E Perez  ;  Krit Pongpirul  ;  Marius Rademaker  ;  Sandro Rosa  ;  Ranjit Sah  ;  Dina Sallam  ;  Patrick Schober  ;  Tanu Singhal  ;  Silva Tafaj  ;  Irene Torres  ;  J Smith Torres-Roman  ;  Dimitrios Tsartsalis  ;  Jadamba Tsolmon  ;  Laziz Tuychiev  ;  Batric Vukcevic  ;  Guy Wanghi  ;  Uwe Wollina  ;  Ren-He Xu  ;  Lin Yang  ;  Zoubida Zaidi  ;  Lee Smith  ;  Jae Il Shin 
Citation
 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Vol.94(6) : 2402-2413, 2022-06 
Journal Title
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY
ISSN
 0146-6615 
Issue Date
2022-06
MeSH
Asia ; COVID-19* / epidemiology ; Europe / epidemiology ; Humans ; SARS-CoV-2 ; Socioeconomic Factors
Keywords
COVID-19 ; case fatality rate ; continents ; proportion meta-analysis
Abstract
The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.
Files in This Item:
T202202379.pdf Download
DOI
10.1002/jmv.27610
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Shin, Jae Il(신재일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2326-1820
Lee, Keum Hwa(이금화) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1511-9587
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/189399
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