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Modelling the impact of rapid diagnostic tests on Plasmodium vivax malaria in South Korea: a cost-benefit analysis

 Jung Ho Kim  ;  Jiyeon Suh  ;  Woon Ji Lee  ;  Heun Choi  ;  Jong-Dae Kim  ;  Changsoo Kim  ;  Jun Yong Choi  ;  Ryeojin Ko  ;  Heewon Kim  ;  Jeehyun Lee  ;  Joon Sup Yeom 
 BMJ GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol.6(2) : e004292, 2021-02 
Journal Title
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epidemiology ; malaria ; mathematical modelling
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing Plasmodium vivax malaria, especially in resource-limited countries. However, the impact of RDTs on P. vivax malaria incidence and national medical costs has not been evaluated. We assessed the impact of RDT implementation on P. vivax malaria incidence and overall medical expenditures in South Korea and performed a cost-benefit analysis from the payer's perspective.

Methods: We developed a dynamic compartmental model for P. vivax malaria transmission in South Korea using delay differential equations. Long latency and seasonality were incorporated into the model, which was calibrated to civilian malaria incidences during 2014-2018. We then estimated averted malaria cases and total medical costs from two diagnostic scenarios: microscopy only and both microscopy and RDTs. Medical costs were extracted based on data from a hospital in an at-risk area for P. vivax malaria and were validated using Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis of RDTs using the incremental benefit:cost ratio (IBCR) considering only medical costs and performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainties of model parameters, costs and benefits.

Results: The results showed that 55.3% of new P. vivax malaria cases were averted, and $696 214 in medical costs was saved over 10 years after RDT introduction. The estimated IBCR was 2.5, indicating that RDT implementation was beneficial, compared with microscopy alone. The IBCR was sensitive to the diagnosis time reduction, infectious period and short latency period, and provided beneficial results in a benefit over $10.6 or RDT cost under $39.7.

Conclusions: The model simulation suggested that RDTs could significantly reduce P. vivax malaria incidence and medical costs. Moreover, cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that the introduction of RDTs was beneficial over microscopy alone. These results support the need for widespread adoption of RDTs.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Chang Soo(김창수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5940-5649
Choi, Jun Yong(최준용) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2775-3315
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