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Correlates of psychological resilience and risk: Prospective associations of self-reported and relative resilience with Connor-Davidson resilience scale, heart rate variability, and mental health indices

 Sun Jae Jung  ;  Ye Jin Jeon  ;  Karmel W Choi  ;  Ji Su Yang  ;  Jeong-Ho Chae  ;  Karestan C Koenen  ;  Hyeon Chang Kim 
 BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Vol.11(5) : e02091, 2021-05 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Female ; Heart Rate ; Humans ; Male ; Mental Health ; Prospective Studies ; Psychometrics ; Resilience, Psychological* ; Self Report ; Surveys and Questionnaires
CD-RISC ; depression ; heart rate variability ; loneliness ; longitudinal study ; resilience
Background: There are several ways to determine psychological resilience. However, the correlation between each measurement is not clear. We explored associations of baseline relative "resilience" and risk with later self-reported trait resilience and other biological/mental health indices.

Methods: We utilized baseline and follow-up survey data from 500 participants aged 30-64 in the community cohort. Baseline "relative" resilience was defined by: (a) negative life events (NLEs) in the six months before baseline and (b) depressive symptoms at baseline, yielding four groups of individuals: i) "Unexposed and well," "Vulnerable (depression)," "Reactive (depression)," and "Resilient." "Trait" resilience at follow-up was self-reported using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Associations between relative resilience at baseline, CD-RISC, and heart rate variability (HRV) indices at follow-up were assessed with generalized linear regression models after adjustments. Associations between baseline resilience and subsequent loneliness/depression indices were also evaluated.

Results: Overall trait resilience and its subfactors at follow-up showed strong negative associations with "Reactive" at baseline (adj-β for total CD-RISC score: -11.204 (men), -9.472 (women)). However, resilience at baseline was not associated with later HRV, which was compared with the significant positive association observed between CD-RISC and HRV at the same follow-up time point. The "Reactive" exhibited significantly increased depressive symptoms at follow-up. The overall distribution pattern of CD-RISC subfactors differed by baseline resilience status by sex.

Conclusions: The "relative" resilience based on the absence of depression despite prior adversity seems to be highly related with trait resilience at follow-up but not with HRV. The sub-factor pattern of CD-RISC was different by sex.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Hyeon Chang(김현창) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7867-1240
Jung, Sun Jae(정선재) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5194-7339
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