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Smart Patch for Skin Temperature: Preliminary Study to Evaluate Psychometrics and Feasibility

Authors
 Heejung Kim  ;  Sunkook Kim  ;  Mingoo Lee  ;  Yumie Rhee  ;  Sungho Lee  ;  Yi-Rang Jeong  ;  Sunju Kang  ;  Muhammad Naqi  ;  Soyun Hong 
Citation
 SENSORS, Vol.21(5) : 1855, 2021-03 
Journal Title
 SENSORS 
Issue Date
2021-03
MeSH
Adult ; Body Temperature ; Feasibility Studies ; Humans ; Psychometrics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Skin Temperature* ; Thermometers*
Keywords
body temperature ; feasibility study ; remote sensing technology
Abstract
There is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biological data to assess health and wellbeing. Currently, many types of smart patches have been developed to continuously monitor body temperature, but few trials have been completed to evaluate psychometrics and feasibility for human subjects in real-life scenarios. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the reliability, validity and usability of a smart patch measuring body temperature in healthy adults. The smart patch consisted of a fully integrated wearable wireless sensor with a multichannel temperature sensor, signal processing integrated circuit, wireless communication feature and a flexible battery. Thirty-five healthy adults were recruited for this test, carried out by wearing the patches on their upper chests for 24 h and checking their body temperature six times a day using infrared forehead thermometers as a gold standard for testing validity. Descriptive statistics, one-sampled and independent t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot were examined for body temperatures between two measures. In addition, multiple linear regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and qualitative content analysis were conducted. Among the 35 participants, 29 of them wore the patch for over 19 h (dropout rate: 17.14%). Mean body temperature measured by infrared forehead thermometers and smart patch ranged between 32.53 and 38.2 °C per person and were moderately correlated (r = 0.23-0.43) overall. Based on a Bland-Altman plot, approximately 94% of the measurements were located within one standard deviation (upper limit = 4.52, lower limit = -5.82). Most outliers were identified on the first measurement and were located below the lower limit. It is appropriate to use 37.5 °C in infrared forehead temperature as a cutoff to define febrile conditions. Users' position while checking and ambient temperature and humidity are not affected to the smart patch body temperature. Overall, the participants showed high usability and satisfaction on the survey. Few participants reported discomfort due to limited daily activity, itchy skin or detaching concerns. In conclusion, epidermal electronic sensor technologies provide a promising method for continuously monitoring individuals' body temperatures, even in real-life situations. Our study findings show the potential for smart patches to monitoring non-febrile condition in the community.
Files in This Item:
T202101587.pdf Download
DOI
10.3390/s21051855
Appears in Collections:
3. College of Nursing (간호대학) > Dept. of Nursing (간호학과) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Heejung(김희정) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3719-0111
Rhee, Yumie(이유미) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4227-5638
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/182926
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