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Simple oral exercise with chewing gum for improving oral function in older adults

 Hyo-Jung Kim  ;  Joo-Young Lee  ;  Eun-Song Lee  ;  Hyo-Jung Jung  ;  Hyung-Joon Ahn  ;  Hoi In Jung  ;  Baek-Il Kim 
 AGING CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol.33(4) : 1023-1031, 2021-04 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Aged ; Chewing Gum* ; Deglutition* ; Exercise ; Humans ; Saliva* ; Salivation
Chewing gum ; Dry mouth ; Mastication ; Older adult ; Swallowing ; Xerostomia
Background: As general and oral health are closely interrelated, promoting oral health may extend a healthy life expectancy. Aims: To evaluate the long-term effects of simple oral exercise (SOE) and chewing gum exercise on mastication, salivation, and swallowing function in adults aged ≥ 65 years. Methods: Ninety-six participants were assigned to control, SOE, and GOE (chewing gum exercise with SOE) groups. The SOE comprised exercises to improve mastication, salivation, and swallowing function. Control group participants performed no exercises. The intervention period was 8 weeks, followed by a 3-week maintenance period. The Mixing Ability Index (MAI), occlusal force, unstimulated saliva, and repetitive saliva swallowing test were evaluated at baseline and 2, 5, 8, and 11 weeks later. Self-reported discomfort was re-evaluated after 8 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, mean MAI differences from baseline significantly increased in both groups; the increase in the GOE group was largest and four times higher than in the control group. Mean differences of occlusal force from baseline increased by 56 N (SOE group) and 60 N (GOE group). The increase of salivation was greater in the SOE (3.6-fold) and GOE (2.2-fold) groups than in the control group. Furthermore, 27% and 18% of SOE and GOE group participants, respectively, were re-categorized as having good swallowing function. Participants reported less discomfort as oral functions improved. Discussion: These findings may facilitate the development of clinical practice guidelines for optimal oral care in older adults. Conclusion: While both SOE and GOE may improve oral function in older adults, GOE is recommended for those with impaired mastication. Trial registration: KCT0003305, retrospectively registered 31/10/2018.
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2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Dentistry and Public Oral Health (예방치과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
2. College of Dentistry (치과대학) > Dept. of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine (구강내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Baek Il(김백일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8234-2327
Ahn, Hyoung Joon(안형준)
Lee, Eun Song(이은송) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2949-4783
Lee, Joo-Young(이주영)
Jung, Hoi In(정회인) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1978-6926
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