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Current Status and Application of Metformin for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

Authors
 Hyun Kyu Ahn  ;  Young Hwa Lee  ;  Kyo Chul Koo 
Citation
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol.21(22) : 8540, 2020-11 
Journal Title
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Issue Date
2020-11
MeSH
Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use ; Apoptosis ; Autophagy ; Blood Glucose / metabolism ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism ; Diabetes Complications / drug therapy ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy* ; Disease-Free Survival ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Insulin / metabolism ; Male ; Metabolic Syndrome / complications ; Metabolic Syndrome / drug therapy* ; Metformin / therapeutic use* ; Prostatic Neoplasms / complications ; Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy* ; Protein Kinases / metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism ; Risk ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism ; Treatment Outcome ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
Keywords
metformin ; prostatic neoplasm
Abstract
Metformin, an oral biguanide used for first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has attracted attention for its anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and protein synthesis, induction of apoptosis and autophagy by p53 and p21, and decreased blood insulin level have been suggested as direct anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin. Research has shown that PCa development and progression are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Therefore, reduction in the risk of PCa and improvement in survival in metformin users may be the results of the direct anti-cancer mechanisms of the drug or the secondary effects from improvement of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, some research has suggested that there is no association between metformin use and PCa incidence or survival. In this comprehensive review, we summarize updated evidence on the relationship between metformin use and oncological effects in patients with PCa. We also highlight ongoing clinical trials evaluating metformin as an adjuvant therapy in novel drug combinations in various disease settings.
Files in This Item:
T202006593.pdf Download
DOI
10.3390/ijms21228540
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Urology (비뇨의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Koo, Kyo Chul(구교철) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7303-6256
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/182665
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