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Machine learning insight into the role of imaging and clinical variables for the prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease and revascularization: An exploratory analysis of the CONSERVE study

Authors
 Lohendran Baskaran  ;  Xiaohan Ying  ;  Zhuoran Xu  ;  Subhi J Al'Aref  ;  Benjamin C Lee  ;  Sang-Eun Lee  ;  Ibrahim Danad  ;  Hyung-Bok Park  ;  Ravi Bathina  ;  Andrea Baggiano  ;  Virginia Beltrama  ;  Rodrigo Cerci  ;  Eui-Young Choi  ;  Jung-Hyun Choi  ;  So-Yeon Choi  ;  Jason Cole  ;  Joon-Hyung Doh  ;  Sang-Jin Ha  ;  Ae-Young Her  ;  Cezary Kepka  ;  Jang-Young Kim  ;  Jin-Won Kim  ;  Sang-Wook Kim  ;  Woong Kim  ;  Yao Lu  ;  Amit Kumar  ;  Ran Heo  ;  Ji Hyun Lee  ;  Ji-Min Sung  ;  Uma Valeti  ;  Daniele Andreini  ;  Gianluca Pontone  ;  Donghee Han  ;  Todd C Villines  ;  Fay Lin  ;  Hyuk-Jae Chang  ;  James K Min  ;  Leslee J Shaw 
Citation
 PLOS ONE, Vol.15(6) : e0233791, 2020-06 
Journal Title
 PLOS ONE 
Issue Date
2020-06
MeSH
Aged ; Coronary Angiography* ; Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging* ; Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology ; Coronary Artery Disease / pathology ; Coronary Artery Disease / surgery ; Female ; Humans ; Machine Learning* ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Models, Statistical ; Myocardial Revascularization / statistics & numerical data*
Abstract
Background: Machine learning (ML) is able to extract patterns and develop algorithms to construct data-driven models. We use ML models to gain insight into the relative importance of variables to predict obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) using the Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography for Selective Cardiac Catheterization (CONSERVE) study, as well as to compare prediction of obstructive CAD to the CAD consortium clinical score (CAD2). We further perform ML analysis to gain insight into the role of imaging and clinical variables for revascularization. Methods: For prediction of obstructive CAD, the entire ICA arm of the study, comprising 719 patients was used. For revascularization, 1,028 patients were randomized to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) or coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Data was randomly split into 80% training 20% test sets for building and validation. Models used extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Results: Mean age was 60.6 ± 11.5 years and 64.3% were female. For the prediction of obstructive CAD, the AUC was significantly higher for ML at 0.779 (95% CI: 0.672-0.886) than for CAD2 (0.696 [95% CI: 0.594-0.798]) (P = 0.01). BMI, age, and angina severity were the most important variables. For revascularization, the model obtained an overall area under the receiver-operation curve (AUC) of 0.958 (95% CI = 0.933-0.983). Performance did not differ whether the imaging parameters used were from ICA (AUC 0.947, 95% CI = 0.903-0.990) or CCTA (AUC 0.941, 95% CI = 0.895-0.988) (P = 0.90). The ML model obtained sensitivity and specificity of 89.2% and 92.9%, respectively. Number of vessels with ≥70% stenosis, maximum segment stenosis severity (SSS) and body mass index (BMI) were the most important variables. Exclusion of imaging variables resulted in performance deterioration, with an AUC of 0.705 (95% CI 0.614-0.795) (P <0.0001). Conclusions: For obstructive CAD, the ML model outperformed CAD2. BMI is an important variable, although currently not included in most scores. In this ML model, imaging variables were most associated with revascularization. Imaging modality did not influence model performance. Removal of imaging variables reduced model performance.
Files in This Item:
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DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0233791
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Chang, Hyuk-Jae(장혁재) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6139-7545
Choi, Eui Young(최의영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3732-0190
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/179327
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