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Perioperative management of patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: up-to-date recommendations

 Kwang-Sub Kim  ;  Jong Wook Song  ;  Sarah Soh  ;  Young-Lan Kwak  ;  Jae-Kwang Shim 
 Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Vol.15(2) : 133-142, 2020-04 
Journal Title
 Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 
Issue Date
Anticoagulants ; Blood loss, surgical ; Emergency ; Non-vitamin K antagonist ; Reversal
Indications of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), consisting of two types: direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) and direct factor Xa inhibitor (rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), have expanded over the last few years. Accordingly, increasing number of patients presenting for surgery are being exposed to NOACs, despite the fact that NOACs are inevitably related to increased perioperative bleeding risk. This review article contains recent clinical evidence-based up-to-date recommendations to help set up a multidisciplinary management strategy to provide a safe perioperative milieu for patients receiving NOACs. In brief, despite the paucity of related clinical evidence, several key recommendations can be drawn based on the emerging clinical evidence, expert consensus, and predictable pharmacological properties of NOACs. In elective surgeries, it seems safe to perform high-bleeding risk surgeries 2 days after cessation of NOAC, regardless of the type of NOAC. Neuraxial anesthesia should be performed 3 days after cessation of NOACs. In both instances, dabigatran needs to be discontinued for an additional 1 or 2 days, depending on the decrease in renal function. NOACs do not require a preoperative heparin bridge therapy. Emergent or urgent surgeries should preferably be delayed for at least 12 h from the last NOAC intake (better if > 24 h). If surgery cannot be delayed, consider using specific reversal agents, which are idarucizumab for dabigatran and andexanet alfa for rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. If these specific reversal agents are not available, consider using prothrombin complex concentrates.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kwak, Young Lan(곽영란) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2984-9927
Kim, Kwang-Sub(김광섭)
Soh, Sa Rah(소사라) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5022-4617
Song, Jong Wook(송종욱) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7518-2070
Shim, Jae Kwang(심재광) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9093-9692
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