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Long-term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Cardiovascular Mortality in the General Population: A Nationwide Cohort Study

 In-Soo Kim  ;  Pil-Sung Yang  ;  Jinae Lee  ;  Hee Tae Yu  ;  Tae-Hoon Kim  ;  Jae-Sun Uhm  ;  Jong-Youn Kim  ;  Hui-Nam Pak  ;  Moon-Hyoung Lee  ;  Boyoung Joung 
 JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol.75(5) : 549-558, 2020-05 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Air pollution ; Fine particulate matter ; General population ; Long-term exposure ; Mortality
Background: Although eastern Asian countries are exposed to high levels of air pollution, the impact of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is not well identified. We assessed the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and all-cause/cardiovascular mortalities.

Methods: We included 436,933 subjects who received national health examinations from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-based National Sample Cohort. We matched subjects' residential-address areas with hourly-measurements of PM2.5 concentration data. We estimated the risk of mortality with average PM2.5 exposure during the study period using a Cox proportional-hazards model.

Results: During 1,683,271 person·years, all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities were observed in 6432 and 1603 subjects (382 and 95 per 100,000 person·years, respectively). An increase in 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities by 3.4 % [2.7-4.1] and 4.7 % [3.6-5.8], respectively (each p < 0.001). PM2.5 was linearly and significantly correlated with these all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities above 18 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p < 0.001), but it was not significant below 18 μg/m3 of PM2.5. To investigate the specific PM2.5 concentration for raising cardiovascular mortality more, we analyzed the sensitivities/specificities for different PM2.5 levels, and 18 μg/m3 showed the highest Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity-1) with c-index of 0.85 (0.84-0.86). PM2.5 effect on all-cause mortality was more profound in subjects with previous myocardial infarction compared to the opposite population.

Conclusions: In the Korean general population exposed to high-air pollution, long-term PM2.5 exposure was linearly associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, especially above 18 μg/m3 of PM2.5.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Biomedical Systems Informatics (의생명시스템정보학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, In-Soo(김인수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2801-5514
Kim, Jong Youn(김종윤) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7040-8771
Kim, Tae-Hoon(김태훈) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4200-3456
Pak, Hui Nam(박희남) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3256-3620
Yang, Pil Sung(양필성)
Uhm, Jae Sun(엄재선) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1611-8172
Yu, Hee Tae(유희태) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6835-4759
Lee, Moon-Hyoung(이문형) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7268-0741
Lee, Jinae(이진애)
Joung, Bo Young(정보영) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9036-7225
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