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Indoxyl sulfate-induced TNF-α is regulated by crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, NF-κB, and SOCS2 in human macrophages

 Hee Young Kim  ;  Tae-Hyun Yoo  ;  Joo-Youn Cho  ;  Hyeon Chang Kim  ;  Won-Woo Lee 
 FASEB JOURNAL, Vol.33(10) : 10844-10858, 2019 
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Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic toxin associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Despite the crucial role of uremia-related immune dysfunction, a majority of studies attempting to elucidate its pathogenic role in CVD have focused on IS-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in IS-induced production of TNF-α, a major cardiotoxic cytokine, by human macrophages. We found that crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), NF-κB, and the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)2 is important for TNF-α production in IS-stimulated human macrophages. IS-activated AhR rapidly associates with the p65 NF-κB subunit, resulting in mutual inhibition of AhR and NF-κB and inhibition of TNF-α production at an early time point. Later, this repression of TNF-α production is alleviated when SOCS2, a negative modulator of NF-κB, is directly induced by IS-activated AhR. In addition, once free of inhibition, activated AhR induces TNF-α expression by interacting with AhR binding sites in the TNF-α gene. Lastly, we confirmed decreased AhR and increased SOCS2 expression in monocytes of patients with end-stage renal disease, indicating the activation of AhR. Taken together, our results suggest that IS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages is regulated through a complicated mechanism involving interaction of AhR, NF-κB, and SOCS2.-Kim, H. Y., Yoo, T.-H., Cho, J.-Y., Kim, H. C., Lee, W.-W. Indoxyl sulfate-induced TNF-α is regulated by crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, NF-κB, and SOCS2 in human macrophages.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Hyeon Chang(김현창) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7867-1240
Yoo, Tae Hyun(유태현) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9183-4507
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