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난원공 개존을 통한 우심방에서 좌심방으로의 단락 진단에 있어 경흉부 심초음파 하모닉 영상의 유용성

Other Titles
 Clinical Utility of Harmonic Imaging in the Detection of Right to Left Shunt through Patent Foramen Ovale by Transthoracic Contrast Echocardiography 
 신미승  ;  강석민  ;  장길진  ;  변기현  ;  하종원  ;  정남식  ;  허지회  ;  이병인 
 Korean Circulation Journal, Vol.30(4) : 433-439, 2000 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Acoustics ; Administration, Intravenous ; Diagnosis ; Dihydroergotamine ; Echocardiography* ; Echocardiography, Transesophageal ; Embolism, Paradoxical ; Foramen Ovale, Patent* ; Heart Atria ; Humans ; Male ; Microbubbles ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Stroke ; Valsalva Maneuver
Patent foramen ovale ; Harmonic imaging ; Transthoracic contrast echocardiography
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical embolism through the patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a well-recognized mechanism for otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke. Although transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TCE) has been used frequently for noninvasive diagnosis of right to left shunt through PFO, its diagnostic accuracy appears limited, especially in patients with poor acoustic window. Since harmonic imaging (HI) can enhance the definition of contrast microbubbles, theoretical advantages of HI in the detection of right to left shunt through PFO using microbubbles can be considered. However, there are few data regarding the diagnostic efficacy of HI in the detection of right to left shunt through PFO. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of transthoracic HI in the detection of right to left shunt through PFO in patients with stroke with that of fundamental imaging (FI). Methods: One hundred thirty-six consecutive patients with stroke (82 male, mean age:9) underwent TCE in both HI and FI and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during rest and Valsalva maneuver with intravenous administration of agitated saline. PFO was judged to be present if microbubbles appeared in the left atrium within 3 cardiac cycles of their appearance in the right atrium. TEE was regarded as the gold standard for assessing the diagnostic accuracy of TCE. Results: Right to left shunt through PFO was detected in 40 of 136 patients by TEE (29.4%). FI of TCE detected shunt through PFO in only 9 of 136 patients (6.6%). In contrast, HI detected shunt through PFO in 25 of 136 patients (18.4%). The overall sensitivity and specificity of FI and HI for detection of right to left shunt through PFO were 22.5%, 62.5% (p<0.05) and 100%, 100%, respectively. Valsalva maneuver during HI significantly increased the detection rate of shunt through PFO (during rest in 9 and during Valsalva maneuver in 25, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: HI with contrast microbubble injection significantly enhanced the detection of right to left shunt through PFO in patients with ischemic stroke compared with FI by transthoracic approach.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurology (신경과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kang, Seok Min(강석민) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9856-9227
Chung, Nam Sik(정남식)
Ha, Jong Won(하종원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8260-2958
Heo, Ji Hoe(허지회) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9898-3321
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