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Olfactory anosognosia is a predictor of cognitive decline and dementia conversion in Parkinson's disease

 Han Soo Yoo  ;  Seok Jong Chung  ;  Yang Hyun Lee  ;  Byoung Seok Ye  ;  Young H. Sohn  ;  Phil Hyu Lee 
 Journal of Neurology, Vol.266(7) : 1601-1610, 2019 
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Anosognosia ; Cognitive decline ; Dementia ; Olfactory dysfunction ; Parkinson’s disease
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are often unaware of olfactory deficits despite having hyposmia from the early stages. We aimed to evaluate whether olfactory anosognosia is a predictor of cognitive decline in PD.

METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we recruited 77 PD patients who underwent both olfactory and neuropsychological tests and were followed-up for over 5 years. Based on the degree of olfactory dysfunction and awareness of its presence, patients were classified as normosmic patients (Normosmia group, n = 15), hyposmic patients without olfactory anosognosia (Hyposmia-OA-, n = 40), or hyposmic patients with olfactory anosognosia (Hyposmia-OA+, n = 22). We compared the rates of cognitive decline using linear mixed model and dementia conversion using a survival analysis among the groups.

RESULTS: A higher proportion of patients in the Hyposmia-OA+ group had mild cognitive impairment at baseline (77.3%) and dementia converter at follow-up (50.0%). The Hyposmia-OA+ group exhibited a faster decline in frontal executive and global cognitive function than did the Normosmia and Hyposmia-OA- groups. A Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the conversion rate to dementia was significantly higher in the Hyposmia-OA+ group than in the Normosmia (P = 0.007) and Hyposmia-OA- (P = 0.038) groups. A Cox regression analysis showed that olfactory anosognosia remained a significant predictor of time to develop dementia in the Hyposmia-OA+ group compared to the Normosmia group (adjusted hazard ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.10-8.21).

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that olfactory anosognosia is a predictor of cognitive decline and dementia conversion in PD.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Neurology (신경과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Sohn, Young Ho(손영호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6533-2610
Ye, Byoung Seok(예병석) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0187-8440
Yoo, Han Soo(유한수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7846-6271
Lee, Yang Hyun(이양현)
Lee, Phil Hyu(이필휴) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9931-8462
Chung, Seok Jong(정석종) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6086-3199
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