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Ramucirumab as Second-Line Treatment in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Analysis of REACH Trial Results by Child-Pugh Score

 Andrew X. Zhu  ;  Ari David Baron  ;  Peter Malfertheiner  ;  Masatoshi Kudo  ;  Seiji Kawazoe  ;  Denis Pezet  ;  Florian Weissinger  ;  Giovanni Brandi  ;  Carlo A. Barone  ;  Takuji Okusaka  ;  Yoshiyuki Wada  ;  Joon Oh Park  ;  Baek-Yeol Ryoo  ;  Jae Yong Cho  ;  Hyun Cheol Chung  ;  Chung-Pin Li  ;  Chia-Jui Yen  ;  Kuan-Der Lee  ;  Shao-Chun Chang  ;  Ling Yang  ;  Paolo B. Abada  ;  Ian Chau 
 JAMA ONCOLOGY, Vol.3(2) : 235-243, 2017 
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Importance: REACH is the first phase 3 trial to provide information on hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in the second-line (postsorafenib) setting categorized by Child-Pugh score, a scoring system used to measure the severity of chronic liver disease. This exploratory analysis demonstrates the relationship between a potential ramucirumab survival benefit, severity of liver disease, and baseline α-fetoprotein (αFP). Objective: To assess treatment effects and tolerability of ramucirumab by Child-Pugh score in patients with HCC enrolled in the REACH trial. Design, Settings, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial of ramucirumab and best supportive care vs placebo and best supportive care as second-line treatment in patients with HCC enrolled between November 4, 2010 and April 18, 2013, from 154 global sites. Overall, 643 patients were randomized and included in this analysis; 565 patients considered Child-Pugh class A (Child-Pugh scores 5 and 6) and 78 patients considered class B (Child-Pugh scores 7 and 8). Interventions: Ramucirumab (8 mg/kg) or placebo intravenously plus best supportive care every 2 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), defined as time from randomization to death from any cause. Results: In the randomized population of 643 patients (mean [SD] age, 62.8 [11.1] years) in this analysis, a potential ramucirumab OS benefit was observed for patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.02; P = .06) but no apparent benefit for patients with Child-Pugh scores of 6 or 7 and 8. In patients with baseline αFP levels of 400 ng/mL (to convert ng/mL to μg/L, multiply by 1.0) or more, a ramucirumab OS benefit was significant for a score of Child-Pugh 5 (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.87; P = .01) and Child-Pugh 6 (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P = .04), but was not significant for Child-Pugh 7 and 8. The overall safety profile of ramucirumab, regardless of Child-Pugh score, was considered manageable. Regardless of treatment arm, patients with Child-Pugh scores of 7 and 8 experienced a higher incidence of grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events, including ascites and asthenia, and special-interest events, including liver injury and/or failure and bleeding, compared with patients with Child-Pugh scores of 5 or 6. Conclusions and Relevance: In unselected patients, a trend for ramucirumab survival benefit was observed only for patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5. In patients with baseline αFP levels of 400 ng/mL or more, a ramucirumab survival benefit was observed for Child-Pugh scores of 5 and 6. Ramucirumab had a manageable toxic effect profile. These results support the ongoing REACH-2 study of ramucirumab in patients with advanced HCC with underlying Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and baseline αFP levels of 400 ng/mL or more. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01140347.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Cho, Jae Yong(조재용) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0926-1819
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