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High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension

 Chang-Yun Yoon  ;  Juhwan Noh  ;  Jinae Lee  ;  Youn Kyung Kee  ;  Changhwan Seo  ;  Misol Lee  ;  Min-Uk Cha  ;  Hyoungnae Kim  ;  Seohyun Park  ;  Hae-Ryong Yun  ;  Su-Young Jung  ;  Jong Hyun Jhee  ;  Seung Hyeok Han  ;  Tae-Hyun Yoo  ;  Shin-Wook Kang  ;  Jung Tak Park 
 Kidney International, Vol.93(4) : 921-931, 2018 
Journal Title
 Kidney International 
Issue Date
chronic kidney disease ; dietary sodium ; hypertension
The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and/or development of proteinuria during follow-up]. The median ages were 55 and 47 years, the proportions of males 50.9% and 46.3%, and the median eGFR 92 and 96 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in individuals with and without hypertension, respectively. During a median follow-up of 123 months in individuals with hypertension and 140 months in those without hypertension, CKD developed in 27.8% and 16.5%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, multiple Cox models indicated that the risk of CKD development was significantly higher in people with hypertension who consumed less than 2.08 g/day or over 4.03 g/day sodium than in those who consumed between 2.93-4.03 g/day sodium. However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among each quartile of people without hypertension. Thus, both high and low sodium intakes were associated with increased risk for CKD, but this relationship was only observed in people with hypertension.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실)
1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (예방의학교실)
1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Yonsei Biomedical Research Center (연세의생명연구원)
Yonsei Authors
강신욱(Kang, Shin Wook) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5677-4756
김형래(Kim, Hyoung Rae)
노주환(Noh, Juhwan) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0657-0082
박서현(Park, Seo Hyun)
박정탁(Park, Jung Tak) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2325-8982
서창환(Seo, Changhwan)
유태현(Yoo, Tae Hyun) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9183-4507
윤해룡(Yun, Hae Ryong) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7038-0251
이미솔(Lee, Mi Sol)
이진애(Lee, Jinae)
정수영(Jung, Su Young)
지종현(Jhee, Jong Hyun)
차민욱(Cha, Min Uk)
한승혁(Han, Seung Hyeok) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7923-5635
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