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AMPK-ULK1-Mediated Autophagy Confers Resistance to BET Inhibitor JQ1 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells

 Ji Eun Jang  ;  Ju-In Eom  ;  Hoi-Kyung Jeung  ;  June-Won Cheong  ;  Jung Yeon Lee  ;  Jin Seok Kim  ;  Yoo Hong Min 
 CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, Vol.23(11) : 2781-2794, 2017 
Journal Title
Issue Date
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics* ; Apoptosis/drug effects ; Autophagy/drug effects ; Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/genetics* ; Azepines/administration & dosage* ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage/drug effects ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics* ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy* ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology ; Neoplasm Proteins ; Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects ; Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors ; Proteins/genetics ; RNA, Small Interfering ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Triazoles/administration & dosage*
Purpose: Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors are promising epigenetic agents for the treatment of various subsets of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the resistance of leukemia stem cells (LSC) to BET inhibitors remains a major challenge. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying LSC resistance to the BET inhibitor JQ1.Experimental Design: We evaluated the levels of apoptosis and autophagy induced by JQ1 in LSC-like leukemia cell lines and primary CD34+CD38- leukemic blasts obtained from AML cases with normal karyotype without recurrent mutations.Results: JQ1 effectively induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in JQ1-sensitive AML cells. However, in JQ1-resistant AML LSCs, JQ1 induced little apoptosis and led to upregulation of beclin-1, increased LC3-II lipidation, formation of autophagosomes, and downregulation of p62/SQSTM1. Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacologic inhibitors or knockdown of beclin-1 using specific siRNA enhanced JQ1-induced apoptosis in resistant cells, indicating that prosurvival autophagy occurred in these cells. Independent of mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK (pThr172)/ULK1 (pSer555) pathway was found to be associated with JQ1-induced autophagy in resistant cells. AMPK inhibition using the pharmacologic inhibitor compound C or by knockdown of AMPKα suppressed autophagy and promoted JQ1-induced apoptosis in AML LSCs.Conclusions: These findings revealed that prosurvival autophagy was one of the mechanisms involved in the resistance AML LSCs to JQ1. Targeting the AMPK/ULK1 pathway or inhibition of autophagy could be an effective therapeutic strategy for combating resistance to BET inhibitors in AML and other types of cancer.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Internal Medicine (내과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Jin Seok(김진석) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8986-8436
Min, Yoo Hong(민유홍) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8542-9583
Lee, Jung Yoen(이정연)
Jang, Ji Eun(장지은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8832-1412
Cheong, June-Won(정준원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1744-0921
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