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Assessment of chronic trigeminal neuropathic pain by the orofacial operant test in rats

 Myeounghoon Cha  ;  Kevin J. Kohan  ;  Xiaozhuo Zuo  ;  Jennifer X. Ling  ;  Jianguo G. Gu 
 BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH, Vol.234(1) : 82-90, 2012 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use ; Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology* ; Chronic Pain/drug therapy ; Chronic Pain/physiopathology* ; Cold Temperature ; Disease Models, Animal* ; Facial Pain/drug therapy ; Facial Pain/physiopathology* ; Hyperalgesia/physiopathology ; Male ; Morphine/therapeutic use ; Neuralgia/drug therapy ; Neuralgia/physiopathology ; Pain Measurement ; Pain Threshold/physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Reward ; Trigeminal Nerve Diseases/drug therapy ; Trigeminal Nerve Diseases/physiopathology*
Classical behavioral tests in animal models of trigeminal neuropathic pain measure reflexive responses that are not necessarily measures of pain. To overcome the problem, we created a chronic constrictive nerve injury (CCI) rat model of pain by ligation of the infraorbital nerve (ION), and applied the orofacial operant test to assess behavioral responses to mechanical and cold stimulation in these rats. Animals were trained to voluntarily contact their facial region to a mechanical or a cold stimulation module in order to access sweetened milk as a positive reward. ION-CCI rats displayed aversive behaviors to innocuous mechanical stimuli, as indicated by a significant decrease in both contact time and the numbers of long contact events in comparison with sham group. For cold stimulation, ION-CCI rats displayed aversive behaviors to both innocuous (17 °C) and noxious cold temperatures (12 °C and 5 °C), as indicated by a significant decrease in both contact time and the numbers of long contact events at the cooling temperatures. The decreases of the contact time and numbers in ION-CCI rats were partially abolished by morphine. Our orofacial operant test demonstrates mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic trigeminal nerve injury. The neuropathic pain in ION-CCI rats was partially alleviated by morphine. Thus, orofacial operant test provides a desirable behavioral assessment method for preclinical studies of chronic trigeminal neuropathic pain.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Physiology (생리학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Cha, Myeoung Hoon(차명훈) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7993-672X
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