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한국의학사의 중세 기점

Other Titles
 The Starting Point of Medieval Medicine in Korea 
 한국고대사탐구, Vol.10 : 237-262, 2012 
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Medical history of Korea ; medical institute(Ihak) of Silla ; starting point of medieval era in Korea ; medieval medicine of East Asia ; medieval medicine of Korea
In this paper, I intended to identify the starting point of Korea’s medieval medicine. I thought that Korea’s medieval medicine started after the Unification of the three kingdoms by Silla, and its adoption Tang’s medical system through the establishment of a medical institute followed by the perpetuation of Chinese medicine in 692 C.E. The establishment of the National Medical Institute (Ui-hak) and the use of Chinese medical texts contributed to the increased universality and compatibility of Korean medicine with Chinese medicine in East Asia. The medical doctors who trained in the National Medical Institute studied with Tang’s medical texts, and pioneered medical advancements of Silla. This tradition of nationally tied medical institutions continued into the Goryeo and the Joseon Dynasties. Buddhism held great interest towards the field of medicine, enough for people to compare Buddhism itself as a medical practice of healing the hearts of human beings. Since the Buddhist temples were characterized by communal living, these temples had an early interest in hygiene and often called for a clean environment. Buddhist monks would have played the role of an intellectual as well as a physician within their community. The distinct feature of medicine in East Asia during the 8~9th centuries is the acceptance of the Chinese medical knowledge and it’s system by Korea and Japan and, the standardization of medicine that followed. This increased the compatibility and universality of medicine amongst the three countries and revitalized the exchange of medical knowledge in the East Asia, and led the foundation for the expansion of medicinal trade throughout East Asia. Unlike the West, central powers attempted to take exclusive control over medicine in East Asia and medical treatments were performed through the will of the king. In other words, the government exclusively operated the medical educational institutions, appointed the trained personnel as government officials through examinations, and compiled medical texts that standardized medical knowledge. All of this was accomplished under the medieval bureaucratic system and the medicine was used as a political tool by the kings. The official doctors were given higher status in Silla and Japan in comparison to China. This was because Chinese medicine was new knowledge in the two countries and the medical doctors that practiced the Chinese medicine were new technicians as well.
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5. Research Institutes (연구소) > Institute for History of Medicine (의학사연구소) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Lee, Hyun Sook(이현숙)
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