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Cyclosporine A induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

Authors
 Han Sung Kim  ;  Seung Il Choi  ;  Eui Bae Jeung  ;  Yeong Min Yoo 
Citation
 PLOS ONE, Vol.9(10) : e108981, 2014 
Journal Title
 PLOS ONE 
Issue Date
2014
MeSH
Animals ; Apoptosis/drug effects* ; Autophagy/drug effects* ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Death/drug effects* ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Cyclosporine/pharmacology* ; DNA Fragmentation/drug effects ; Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2/metabolism ; Phagosomes/drug effects ; Phagosomes/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism ; Rats ; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism ; bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
Abstract
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a powerful immunosuppressive drug with side effects including the development of chronic nephrotoxicity. In this study, we investigated CsA treatment induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death in pituitary GH3 cells. CsA treatment (0.1 to 10 µM) decreased survival of GH3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability decreased significantly with increasing CsA concentrations largely due to an increase in apoptosis, while cell death rates due to autophagy altered only slightly. Several molecular and morphological features correlated with cell death through these distinct pathways. At concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 10 µM, CsA induced a dose-dependent increase in expression of the autophagy markers LC3-I and LC3-II. Immunofluorescence staining revealed markedly increased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), indicating increases in autophagosomes. At the same CsA doses, apoptotic cell death was apparent as indicated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation and increased p53 expression. In apoptotic or autophagic cells, p-ERK levels were highest at 1.0 µM CsA compared to control or other doses. In contrast, Bax levels in both types of cell death were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while Bcl-2 levels showed dose-dependent augmentation in autophagy and were decreased in apoptosis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) showed a similar dose-dependent reduction in cells undergoing apoptosis, while levels of the intracellular calcium ion exchange maker calbindin-D9k were decreased in apoptosis (1.0 to 5 µM CsA), but unchanged in autophagy. In conclusion, these results suggest that CsA induction of apoptotic or autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells depends on the relative expression of factors and correlates with Bcl-2 and Mn-SOD levels.
Files in This Item:
T201404831.pdf Download
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0108981
Appears in Collections:
5. Research Institutes (연구소) > Corneal Dystrophy Research Institute (각막이상증연구소) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Choi, Seung Il(최승일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7168-8795
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/138572
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