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Pharmacotheraphy for alcohol dependence: Anticraving medications for relapse prevention

Authors
 Young-chul Jung  ;  Kee Namkoong 
Citation
 YONSEI MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol.47(2) : 167-178, 2006 
Journal Title
 YONSEI MEDICAL JOURNAL 
ISSN
 0513-5796 
Issue Date
2006
MeSH
Acamprosate ; Alcohol Deterrents/therapeutic use* ; Alcoholism/drug therapy* ; Disulfiram/therapeutic use ; Glutamine/metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Biological ; Models, Neurological ; N-Methylaspartate/metabolism ; Naltrexone/therapeutic use ; Narcotic Antagonists ; Neurons/metabolism ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Receptors, Opioid, mu/genetics ; Receptors, Opioid, mu/metabolism ; Recurrence ; Taurine/analogs & derivatives ; Taurine/therapeutic use ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
Keywords
Alcohol dependence ; pharmacotherapy ; naltrexone ; acamprosate
Abstract
Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder that results from a variety of genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Relapse prevention for alcohol dependence has traditionally involved psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pharmacotherapy, however, in conjunction with behavioral therapy, is generating interest as another modality to prevent relapse and enhance abstinence. Naltrexone and acamprosate are at the forefront of the currently available pharmacological options. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist and is thought to reduce the rewarding effect of alcohol. Acamprosate normalizes the dysregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated glutamatergic excitation that occurs in alcohol withdrawal and early abstinence. These different mechanisms of action and different target neurotransmitter systems may endow the two drugs with efficacy for different aspects of alcohol use behavior. Since not all patients seem to benefit from naltrexone and acamprosate, there are ongoing efforts to improve the treatment outcomes by examining the advantages of combined pharmacotherapy and exploring the variables that might predict the response of the medications. In addition, novel medications are being investigated to assess their efficacy in preventing relapse and increasing abstinence.
Files in This Item:
T200600900.pdf Download
DOI
10.3349/ymj.2006.47.2.167
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Psychiatry (정신과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Namkoong, Kee(남궁기) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1400-8057
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/109851
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