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Symptoms to use for diagnostic criteria of hwa-byung, an anger syndrome

 Sung Kil Min  ;  Shin-Young Suh  ;  Ki-Jun Song 
 PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION, Vol.6(1) : 7-12, 2009 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Anger ; Anger syndrome ; Depression ; Hwa-byung ; Symptoms
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristic symptoms which can be used for the diagnosis of hwa-byung, a culture-related anger syndrome in Korea. METHODS: The symptoms of the Hwa-byung Scale were correlated with the Korean versions of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (K-HDRS) and the State and Trait Anger Inventory (K-STAXI) in 89 patients, who were diagnosed as having major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, or adjustment disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria and who had self-labeled hwa-byung. Also, the symptoms of the Hwa-byung Scale were correlated with each other. RESULTS: The symptoms of the Hwa-byung Scale which were significantly correlated with the state anger of the K-STAXI but not with the depressive mood (item 1 of K-HDRS) included feelings of unfairness, subjective anger, external anger, heat sensation, pushing-up in the chest, dry mouth, and sighing. The symptoms which were significantly correlated with state anger and depressed mood included respiratory stuffiness, "haan" and hate. The symptoms which were not significantly correlated with depressed mood and state anger included going-out, epigastric mass, palpitation, headache/pain, frightening easily, many thoughts, and much pleading. These symptoms also showed higher correlation with each other in the correlation matrix. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hwa-byung is different from depressive syndrome in terms of its symptom profile, and suggest what symptoms should be included in the diagnostic criteria of hwa-byung, an anger disorder.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Biomedical Systems Informatics (의생명시스템정보학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Song, Ki Jun(송기준) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2505-4112
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