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Indoor Exposure and Health Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) via Public Facilities PM2.5, Korea(Ⅱ)

 Kim Ho-Hyun  ;  Lee Geon-Woo  ;  Yang Ji-Yeon  ;  Jeon Jun-Min  ;  Lee Woo-Seok  ;  Lim Jung-Yun  ;  Lee Han-Seul  ;  Gwak Yoon-Kyung  ;  Shin Dong-Chun  ;  Lim Young-Wook 
 Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, Vol.8(1) : 35-47, 2014 
Journal Title
 Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment 
Issue Date
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the pollution level (gaseous and particle phase) in the public facilities for the PAHs, non-regulated materials, forecast the risk level by the health risk assessment (HRA) and propose the guideline level. PAH assessments through sampling of particulate matter of diameter ⁄2.5 μm (PM2.5). The user and worker exposure scenario for the PAHs consists of 24-hour exposure scenario (WIES) assuming the worst case and the normal exposure scenario (MIES) based on the survey. This study investigated 20 PAH substances selected out of 32 substances known to be carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic. The risk assessment applies major toxic equivalency factor (TEF) proposed from existing studies and estaimates individual Excess Cancer Risk (ECR). The study assesses the fine dusts (PM2.5) and the exposure levels of the gaseous and particle PAH materials for 6 spots in each 8 facility, e.g. underground subway stations, child-care facilities, elderly care facilities, super market, indoor parking lot, terminal waiting room, internet café (PCrooms), movie theater. For internet café (PC-rooms) in particular, that marks the highest PM2.5 concentration and the average concentration of 10 spots (2 spots for each cafe) is 73.3 μg/m3 (range: 6.8-185.2 μg/m3). The high level of PM2.5 seen in internet cafes was likely due to indoor smoking in most cases. For the gaseous PAHs, the detection frequency for 4-5 rings shows high and the elements with 6 rings shows low frequency. For the particle PAHs, the detection frequency for 2-3 rings shows low and the elements with 6 rings show high frequency. As a result, it is investigated that the most important PAHs are the naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene from the study of Kim et al. (2013) and this annual study. The health risk assessment demonstrates that each facility shows the level of 10-6-10-4. Considering standards and local source of pollution levels, it is judged that the management standard of the benzo (a)pyrene, one of the PAHs, shall be managed with the range of 0.5-1.2 ng/m3. Smoking and ventilation were considered as the most important PAHs exposure associated with public facility PM2.5. This study only estimated for inhalation health risk of PAHs and focused on the associated cancer risk, while multiple measurements would be necessary for public health and policy.
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4. Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) > 1. Journal Papers
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (예방의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
5. Research Institutes (연구소) > Institute for Environmental Research (환경공해연구소) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
김호현(Kim, Ho Hyen)
신동천(Shin, Dong Chun) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4252-2280
양지연(Yang, Ji Yeon)
임영욱(Lim, Young Wook) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8845-2850
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