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Mental health and extracurricular education in Korean first graders: a school-based cross-sectional study

 Hyun Ju Hong  ;  Young Shin Kim  ;  Duk-In Jon  ;  Jeong Ho Soek  ;  Narei Hong  ;  Jill M. Harkavy-Friedman  ;  Ann M. Miller  ;  Laurence L. Greenhill 
 JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY, Vol.72(6) : 861-868, 2011 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Analysis of Variance ; Child ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Depression/epidemiology ; Depression/psychology ; Education*/statistics & numerical data ; Educational Status ; Family/psychology ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Mental Health*/statistics & numerical data ; Regression Analysis ; Republic of Korea/epidemiology ; Schools/statistics & numerical data ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Time Factors
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the results of mental health screening in Korean first graders in association with the amount of time the children spent in extracurricular education.

METHOD: The study included a community sample of 761 boys and girls, with a mean age of 6.6 years, collected from 5 elementary schools in Gunpo-si, South Korea, in July 2007. Primary caregivers completed a questionnaire that included information on demographic characteristics, the amount of time the children spent in extracurricular education and other activities, and an adapted form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) to screen for mental health problems.

RESULTS: These first graders spent a mean of a little over 2 hours each day in extracurricular education. Extracurricular education demonstrated positive correlations with 4 BASC-2 domains, including hyperactivity (r = 0.092, P < .05), aggression (r = 0.073, P < .05), conduct problems (r = 0.073, P < .05) and depression (r = 0.137, P < .01). A positive linear relationship between depression and extracurricular education was also evident in regression analyses (F = 2.25, R(2) = 0.022, P = .001). The relationship held true even when controlling for time spent with parents, time spent with friends, and time spent asleep. Post hoc analyses revealed that children receiving more than 4 hours of extracurricular education per day showed a sharp increase in depressive symptoms as well as a decrease in the amount of time spent with caregivers.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrate that excessive amounts of time spent in extracurricular education (greater than 4 hours per day) may be associated with depression in school-aged children. These findings have relevance for mental health screening and educational policy
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Psychiatry (정신과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Seok, Jeong Ho(석정호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9402-7591
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