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Differential binding of calmodulin to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors regulates receptor trafficking and signaling

 Kyu Yeong Choi ; Seungsoo Chung ; Katherine W. Roche 
 Journal of Neuroscience, Vol.31(16) : 5921~5930, 2011 
Journal Title
 Journal of Neuroscience 
Issue Date
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that modulate excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. The group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) have long intracellular C-terminal domains, which interact with many proteins. Our previous studies identified calmodulin (CaM) as a strong regulator of mGluR5 trafficking and mGluR5-induced calcium signaling. Although it has been accepted that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 interact with CaM, we now show that CaM specifically binds mGluR5 and not mGluR1. We have identified a single critical residue in mGluR5 (L896) that is required for CaM binding. In mGluR1, mutation of the corresponding residue, V909, to leucine is sufficient to confer CaM binding to mGluR1. To investigate the functional effects of CaM binding, we examined the surface expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 in hippocampal neurons. The mutation in mGluR1 (V909L) that confers CaM binding dramatically increases mGluR1 surface expression, whereas the analogous mutation in mGluR5 that disrupts CaM binding (L896V) decreases mGluR5 surface expression. In addition, the critical residue that alters CaM binding regulates mGluR internalization. Furthermore, we find that mGluR-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis is enhanced by CaM binding to group I mGluRs. Finally, we show that calcium responses evoked by group I mGluRs are modulated by these mutations, which regulate CaM binding. Our findings elucidate a critical mechanism that specifically affects mGluR5 trafficking and signaling, and distinguishes mGluR1 and mGluR5 regulation.
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