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Inhalation Toxicity of Humidifier Disinfectants as a Risk Factor of Children’s Interstitial Lung Disease in Korea: A Case-Control Study

Authors
 Hyeon-Jong Yang  ;  Hwa-Jung Kim  ;  Jinho Yu  ;  Eun Lee  ;  Young-Ho Jung  ;  Hyung-Young Kim  ;  Ju-Hee Seo  ;  Geun-Yong Kwon  ;  Ji-Hyuk Park  ;  Jin Gwack  ;  Seung-Ki Youn  ;  Jun-Wook Kwon  ;  Byung-Yool Jun  ;  Kyung Won Kim  ;  Kangmo Ahn  ;  Soo-Young Lee  ;  June-Dong Park  ;  Ji-Won Kwon  ;  Byoung-Ju Kim  ;  Moo-Song Lee  ;  Kyung-Hyun Do  ;  Se-Jin Jang  ;  Bok-Yang Pyun  ;  Soo-Jong Hong 
Citation
 PLOS ONE, Vol.8(6) : e64430, 2013 
Journal Title
 PLOS ONE 
Issue Date
2013
MeSH
Air Conditioning ; Air Pollutants/toxicity* ; Air Pollution, Indoor ; Case-Control Studies ; Child, Preschool ; Disinfectants/toxicity* ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced* ; Male ; Republic of Korea ; Retrospective Studies ; Risk Factors ; Surveys and Questionnaires
Keywords
Air Conditioning ; Air Pollutants/toxicity* ; Air Pollution, Indoor ; Case-Control Studies ; Child, Preschool ; Disinfectants/toxicity* ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced* ; Male ; Republic of Korea ; Retrospective Studies ; Risk Factors ; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of numerous cases of interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) every spring in Korea starting in 2006 raised suspicion about a causal relationship with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HD use and the risk of chILD. METHODS: This retrospective, 1∶3 matched case-control study consisted of 16 cases of chILD that had developed between 2010 and 2011. The three groups of parallel controls (patients with acute lobar pneumonia, asthma, and healthy children) were matched by age, gender, and index date. Indoor/outdoor environmental risk factors, including HD use, were investigated by asking the guardians to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: The median age of the affected children (43.8% male) was 26 months (18.25-36.25). The chILD group did not differ significantly from the control groups with respect to socio-demographic and clinical variables. Indoor and outdoor environmental factors were not associated with a risk of chILD. However, the previous use of HDs (OR; 2.73. 95% CI; 1.41-5.90, P = 0.00) were independently associated with an increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that HDs, which are widely used in South Korea in the winter season, independently increased the risk of chILD in spring. Therefore, continuous monitoring and, if needed, changes in policy are essential to prevent and control pediatric diseases caused by toxic chemicals.
Files in This Item:
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DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0064430
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아청소년과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Kim, Kyung Won(김경원) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4529-6135
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/87220
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