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Impact of mental disorders on clinical outcomes of physical diseases: an umbrella review assessing population attributable fraction and generalized impact fraction

Authors
 Elena Dragioti  ;  Joaquim Radua  ;  Marco Solmi  ;  Corentin J Gosling  ;  Dominic Oliver  ;  Filippo Lascialfari  ;  Muhammad Ahmed  ;  Samuele Cortese  ;  Andrés Estradé  ;  Gonzalo Arrondo  ;  Mary Gouva  ;  Michele Fornaro  ;  Agapi Batiridou  ;  Konstantina Dimou  ;  Dimitrios Tsartsalis  ;  Andre F Carvalho  ;  Jae Il Shin  ;  Michael Berk  ;  Silvia Stringhini  ;  Christoph U Correll  ;  Paolo Fusar-Poli 
Citation
 WORLD PSYCHIATRY, Vol.22(1) : 86-104, 2023-02 
Journal Title
WORLD PSYCHIATRY
ISSN
 1723-8617 
Issue Date
2023-02
Keywords
Mental disorders ; all-cause mortality ; disease-specific mortality ; outcomes ; physical diseases ; trans-speciality prevention
Abstract
Empirical evidence indicates a significant bidirectional association between mental disorders and physical diseases, but the prospective impact of men­tal disorders on clinical outcomes of physical diseases has not been comprehensively outlined. In this PRISMA- and COSMOS-E-compliant umbrella review, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, up to March 15, 2022, to identify systematic reviews with meta-analysis that examined the prospective association between any mental disorder and clinical outcomes of physical diseases. Primary outcomes were disease-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were disease-specific incidence, functioning and/or disability, symptom severity, quality of life, recurrence or progression, major cardiac events, and treatment-related outcomes. Additional inclusion criteria were further applied to primary studies. Random effect models were employed, along with I2 statistic, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects test, excess significance bias test, and risk of bias (ROBIS) assessment. Associations were classified into five credibility classes of evidence (I to IV and non-significant) according to established criteria, complemented by sensitivity and subgroup analyses to examine the robustness of the main analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using a new package for conducting umbrella reviews (https://metaumbrella.org). Population attributable fraction (PAF) and generalized impact fraction (GIF) were then calculated for class I-III associations. Forty-seven systematic reviews with meta-analysis, encompassing 251 non-overlapping primary studies and reporting 74 associations, were included (68% were at low risk of bias at the ROBIS assessment). Altogether, 43 primary outcomes (disease-specific mortality: n=17; all-cause mortality: n=26) and 31 secondary outcomes were investigated. Although 72% of associations were statistically significant (p<0.05), only two showed convincing (class I) evidence: that between depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure (hazard ratio, HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65), and that between schizophrenia and cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases (risk ratio, RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.75). Six associations showed highly suggestive (class II) evidence: those between depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (HR=2.84, 95% CI: 2.00-4.03) and with kidney failure (HR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.31-1.51); that between depressive disorders and major cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction (odds ratio, OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.36-1.70); that between depressive disorders and dementia in patients with diabetes mellitus (HR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.77-2.52); that between alcohol use disorder and decompensated liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C (RR=3.15, 95% CI: 2.87-3.46); and that between schizophrenia and cancer mortality in patients with cancer (standardized mean ratio, SMR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.41-2.15). Sensitivity/subgroup analyses confirmed these results. The largest PAFs were 30.56% (95% CI: 27.67-33.49) for alcohol use disorder and decompensated liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C, 26.81% (95% CI: 16.61-37.67) for depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, 13.68% (95% CI: 9.87-17.58) for depressive disorders and major cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction, 11.99% (95% CI: 8.29-15.84) for schizophrenia and cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and 11.59% (95% CI: 9.09-14.14) for depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with kidney failure. The GIFs confirmed the preventive capacity of these associations. This umbrella review demonstrates that mental disorders increase the risk of a poor clinical outcome in several physical diseases. Prevention targeting mental disorders – particularly alcohol use disorders, depressive disorders, and schizophrenia – can reduce the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes in people with physical diseases. These findings can inform clinical practice and trans-speciality preventive approaches cutting across psychiatric and somatic medicine.
Files in This Item:
T202400322.pdf Download
DOI
10.1002/wps.21068
Appears in Collections:
1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Pediatrics (소아과학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Shin, Jae Il(신재일) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2326-1820
URI
https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/197888
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