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Noninvasive studies may have potential to replace cystoscopy in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer follow-up

 Jongsoo Lee  ;  Ji Eun Heo  ;  Sung Ku Kang  ;  Kwang Suk Lee  ;  Hyunho Han  ;  Won Sik Jang  ;  Young Deuk Choi 
 SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol.12(1) : 21677, 2022-12 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cystoscopy / methods ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology ; Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms* ; Retrospective Studies ; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging ; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / pathology
Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate which requires frequent follow-up. Cystoscopy is currently the gold standard for follow-up which is invasive and undesirable procedure for patients. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of noninvasive studies for follow-up of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. This retrospective study was done for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients with abnormal lesion at follow up cystoscopy, therefore those needed transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). Inclusion criteria was patients who had preoperative bladder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 1 month to TUR-BT and urine cytology results. MRI, urine cytology, and surgical pathology results were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, diagnostic odds ratio, and number needed to misdiagnose for the diagnostic performance of non-invasive studies. From total of 2,258 TUR-BT cases, 1,532 cases of primary TUR-BT and 481 cases which bladder MRI were not done was excluded. Finally, 245 cases of TUR-BT were included. Combined urine cytology and bladder MRI showed 96% sensitivity, 43% specificity, 89% positive and 67% negative predictive values, 87% accuracy, 16.2 diagnostic odds ratio, and 7.4 number needed to misdiagnose values. Among nine false-negative cases, three (1.2%) were missed by the radiologist, two (0.8%) had an empty bladder during magnetic resonance imaging, and three (1.2%) had gross hematuria which needed cystoscopy despite of bladder MRI or urine cytology result. Only one case (0.4%) was missed based on symptoms and noninvasive tests. However, none of the false-negative cases showed rapid extensive progression requiring radical or partial cystectomy. The combination of bladder MRI and urine cytology was comparable to cystoscopy for the follow-up of recurred lesions in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients for sensitivity, but not for specificity. However, it may reduce the need for cystoscopy and allowing patients to have choices for follow up diagnostic methods. Also, additional imaging tests to evaluate kidney, ureter and peri-vesical lesions can be reduced.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Urology (비뇨의학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Lee, Kwang Suk(이광석) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7961-8393
Lee, Jong Soo(이종수) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9984-1138
Jang, Won Sik(장원식) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9082-0381
Choi, Young Deuk(최영득) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8545-5797
Han, Hyun Ho(한현호) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6268-0860
Heo, Ji Eun(허지은) ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4184-8468
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