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Endometrium-Limited Metastasis of Extragenital Malignancies: A Challenge in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Curettage Specimens

 Sangjoon Choi  ;  Jin Woo Joo  ;  Sung-Im Do  ;  Hyun-Soo Kim 
 DIAGNOSTICS, Vol.10(3) : 150, 2020-03 
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endometrium ; metastasis ; extragenital malignancy ; immunohistochemistry
Malignancies of extragenital origin very rarely metastasize to the uterine body. Endometrium-limited metastases may pose diagnostic challenges in endometrial curettage specimens as they may be misdiagnosed as primary endometrial tumors. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of seven cases with endometrial-limited metastases from carcinomas of the nasopharynx (n = 1), breast (n = 2), colon (n = 2), stomach (n = 1), and appendix (n = 1). The patients' ages ranged from 36 to 71 (mean: 55.4) years. None of the patients had a remarkable gynecological history, and the presenting sign in all cases was abnormal uterine bleeding. Although myometrial involvement was absent, multiple metastases were already present in extrauterine locations such as the lung, liver, bone, abdominopelvic peritoneum, and omentum. All patients underwent ultrasonographic examination prior to endometrial curettage. The histologies of the endometrial metastases identified from the curettage specimens were identical to those of the corresponding primary tumors. Ancillary tests including immunostaining and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization confirmed the extragenital origin. Endometrium-limited metastases from extragenital malignancies are extremely rare. They present with abnormal vaginal bleeding and mimic endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid or poorly differentiated types. Since their clinical presentations and histological features are similar to those of primary endometrial tumors, pathologists should consider the possibility of metastases while evaluating endometrial curettage specimens obtained from patients with a history of extragenital malignancies.
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