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Machine Learning Model for Classifying the Results of Fetal Cardiotocography Conducted in High-Risk Pregnancies

 Tae Jun Park  ;  Hye Jin Chang  ;  Byung Jin Choi  ;  Jung Ah Jung  ;  Seongwoo Kang  ;  Seokyoung Yoon  ;  Miran Kim  ;  Dukyong Yoon 
 YONSEI MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol.63(7) : 692-700, 2022-07 
Journal Title
Issue Date
Cardiotocography* / methods ; Female ; Fetus ; Heart Rate, Fetal* / physiology ; Humans ; Machine Learning ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy, High-Risk ; Reproducibility of Results
Cardiotocography ; high-risk-pregnancy ; machine learning
Purpose: Fetal well-being is usually assessed via fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during the antepartum period. However, the interpretation of FHR is a complex and subjective process with low reliability. This study developed a machine learning model that can classify fetal cardiotocography results as normal or abnormal.

Materials and methods: In total, 17492 fetal cardiotocography results were obtained from Ajou University Hospital and 100 fetal cardiotocography results from Czech Technical University and University Hospital in Brno. Board-certified physicians then reviewed the fetal cardiotocography results and labeled 1456 of them as gold-standard; these results were used to train and validate the model. The remaining results were used to validate the clinical effectiveness of the model with the actual outcome.

Results: In a test dataset, our model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.89 and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.73 in an internal validation dataset. An average AUROC of 0.73 and average AUPRC of 0.40 were achieved in the external validation dataset. Fetus abnormality score, as calculated from the continuous fetal cardiotocography results, was significantly associated with actual clinical outcomes [intrauterine growth restriction: odds ratio, 3.626 (p=0.031); Apgar score 1 min: odds ratio, 9.523 (p<0.001), Apgar score 5 min: odds ratio, 11.49 (p=0.001), and fetal distress: odds ratio, 23.09 (p<0.001)].

Conclusion: The machine learning model developed in this study showed precision in classifying FHR signals. This suggests that the model can be applied to medical devices as a screening tool for monitoring fetal status.
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1. College of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Biomedical Systems Informatics (의생명시스템정보학교실) > 1. Journal Papers
Yonsei Authors
Yoon, Dukyong(윤덕용)
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